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Date: 02.11.2017

The First Hundred Years (1950)

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Jubilee biblical In Jewish tradition, the year of Jubilee was a time of joy, the year of remission or universal pardon. The number 50 was specially associated in the early 13th century with the idea of remission. The translation of the body of Thomas Becket took place in the year , 50 years after his martyrdom.

The sermon on that occasion was preached by Cardinal Stephen Lantron, who told his hearers that this coincidence was meant by Providence to recall "the mystical virtue of the number fifty, which, as every reader of the sacred page is aware, is the number of remission.

A hundred years of immigration to Canada 1900 - 1999 | Canadian Council for Refugees

It is a year of reconciliation between adversaries, of conversion and receiving the Sacrament of Reconciliation, " History[ edit ] First Christian jubilee[ edit ] In the face of great suffering, caused by wars and diseases such as the plague thousands of pilgrims came to Rome at Christmas in Cardinal Giacomo Gaetani Stefaneschi , the contemporary and counsellor of Pope Boniface VIII , and author of a treatise on the first Jubilee, noted that the proclamation of the Jubilee owed its origin to the statements of certain aged pilgrims who persuaded Boniface that great indulgences had been granted to all pilgrims in Rome about a hundred years before.

These are, first, that being truly penitent they confess their sins, and secondly, that they visit the basilicas of St. Paul in Rome , at least once a day for a specified time—in the case of the inhabitants of the city for thirty days, in the case of strangers for fifteen. The word "jubilee" does not occur in the bull. The pope speaks rather of a celebration which is to occur every years, but writers both Roman and foreign described this year as annus jubileus, and the name "jubilee" though others, such as the "holy year" or "the golden year", have been used, as well has been applied to such celebrations ever since.

Jubilee of [ edit ] Boniface VIII had intended that the Jubilee should be celebrated only once in a hundred years. Before the middle of the 14th century, Bridget of Sweden and the poet Petrarch among others urged Pope Clement VI , [3] then residing at Avignon , to change this.

In , Clement VI assented, and set the time frame for every 50 years. In , a Jubilee was held, and although the pope did not return to Rome, Cardinal Gaetani Ceccano was dispatched to represent him. On this occasion, daily visits to the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran were enjoined, besides those to the basilicas of St. Paul outside the Walls.

The visit to these four churches has remained as one of the conditions for gaining the Roman Jubilee indulgence. Jubilees of and [ edit ] The celebration next following was held in , and in virtue of an ordinance of Pope Urban VI , it was proposed to hold a Jubilee every 33 years as representing the period of the sojourn of Christ upon earth and also the average span of human life.

Another Jubilee was proclaimed by Pope Martin V in 33 years after the last proclaimed Jubilee in , but Pope Nicholas V , in , reverted to the quinquagesimal period, while in Pope Paul II decreed that the Jubilee should be celebrated every 25 years, [3] and this has been the normal rule ever since.

Paul also permitted foreigners to visit some specified church in their own country, and contribute towards the expense of the Holy Wars, as a substitute for the pilgrimage to Rome. Even this disaster, though, had its good effects in the pains taken afterwards to widen the thoroughfares and to provide for the entertainment and comfort of the pilgrims by numerous charitable organizations, of which the Archconfraternity of the Holy Trinity, founded by St.

Philip Neri , was the most famous. The celebrations around this were "founded on ancient rites and full of symbolic meaning" and the total number attending the initial Jubilee events was, according to Johann Burchard , an estimated , people.

However, the number of pilgrims was lower than expected due to the wars in northern Italy, so the Pope suspended the declaration of indulgences outside Rome in an attempt to lure the faithful to the city.

He then went on to declare a universal or extraordinary jubilee in to pray for peace. This was repeated the next year in , and brought undoubted material benefits to the city. Papal States, Clement X r.

The First Hundred Years

Holy Year issue, mint of Rome. Pope Clement X presided over that of The difficult situation in which the Church found herself during the hegemonic rule of Napoleon prevented Pope Pius VII from proclaiming the Jubilee of More than a half a million pilgrims made the journey to Rome for the Jubilee of However, he was able to announce a Jubilee for , but it was celebrated without any external solemnity, with only the clergy present for the inauguration.

The holy doors were not opened, and the pilgrims who came were generally in Rome to do homage to the pope, who had not accepted the Italian annexation of Rome by the troops of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy , rather than to obtain an indulgence.

The Jubilee of , though shorn of much of its splendor by the self-confinement of the pope within the limits of the Vatican, was, nevertheless, carried out by Pope Leo XIII with all the solemnity that was possible.

With the encyclical Fulgens corona , he declared the first Marian year or "Little Holy Year" for Christ Yesterday, Today, Forever. In this writing, he called for a three-year preparation period leading up to the opening of the Great Jubilee in December The first year, , was to be dedicated to meditation on Jesus, the second to the Holy Spirit , and the third to God the Father.

This Jubilee was especially marked by a simplification of the rites and the requirements for achieving the indulgence, as well as a huge effort to involve more Christians in the celebration.

Protestants and the Eastern Orthodox Church were invited to celebrate the Jubilee together with the Catholics as a sign of ecumenism. Furthermore, special Jubilees were invoked for various groups within the Church, such as children, athletes, politicians, and actors.

World Youth Day , celebrated in Rome in August, brought over two million young people together. The Jubilee was closed by the pope on January 6, , by the closing of the holy door of St. Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy, [ edit ] Main article: Extraordinary Jubilee of Mercy On March 13, , Pope Francis announced a special jubilee on the theme of mercy to be held from December 8, , until November 20, , [7] and formally convoked the holy year through the papal bull of indiction, Misericordiae Vultus The Face of Mercy , on 11 April The doors are opened by the pope at the beginning of the Jubilee and then sealed up again afterwards.

Previously, the rite included the use of a silver hammer for removing the concrete at the opening and a silver trowel for sealing it again after the Jubilee.

The pope would pound on the wall, which would then be set to collapse. This ritual caused injury of bystanders, so for the Great Jubilee of , Pope John Paul II simplified the rite considerably, opening and closing the doors with his hands. Traditionally, the pope himself opens and closes the doors of St. Mary Major, and St. In the Great Jubilee, the pope chose to open all the doors personally, while designating cardinals to close all the doors except that of St.

Catholic parishes all over the world share a similar rite dedicating a door for the purposes of the Jubilee Year to accommodate its parishioners who do not intend to visit Rome for the occasion.

Miscellaneous Jubilee events[ edit ] Inspired popes can include whatever seems fitting, such as Jubilee pilgrimages - thus the ever world-travelling Pope John Paul II named some of his voyages Jubilee pilgrimages: Jubilee indulgence[ edit ] This is a plenary indulgence which, as stated by Pope Boniface VIII in consistory , it is the intention of the Holy See to grant in the most ample manner possible. Of course, when first conceded, such an indulgence, and also the privilege annexed of choosing a confessor who had power to absolve from reserved cases, was a much rarer spiritual boon than it has since become.

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So preeminent was the favor then regarded that the custom arose of suspending all other indulgences during the Jubilee year, a practice which, with certain modifications, still exists to the present day. The precise conditions for gaining each Jubilee indulgence are determined by the Roman pontiff, and they are usually announced in a special Bull, distinct from that which it is customary to issue on the preceding feast of the Ascension giving notice of the forthcoming celebration.

The main conditions, however, which do not usually vary, are five: The first four are common to all plenary indulgences. The statement made by some, that the Jubilee indulgence, being a culpa et a paena, did not of old presuppose either confession or repentance, is absolutely without foundation, and is contradicted by every extant official document of the Roman Catholic Church.

Besides the ordinary Jubilee indulgence, to be gained only by pilgrims who pay a visit to Rome, or through special concession by certain cloistered religious confined within their monasteries, it has long been customary to extend this indulgence the following year to the faithful throughout the world, though in , the indulgence was extended to the whole world during the Jubilee year itself.

For this, fresh conditions are appointed, usually including a certain number of visits to local churches and sometimes fasting or other works of charity. Further, the popes have constantly exercised their prerogative of conceding to all the faithful indulgences ad instar jubilaei after the model of a Jubilee which are commonly known as "extraordinary Jubilees". On these occasions, as at the Jubilee itself, special facilities are usually accorded for absolution from reserved cases, though on the other hand, the great indulgence is only to be gained by the performance of conditions much more onerous than those required for an ordinary plenary indulgence.

Such extraordinary Jubilees are commonly granted by a newly elected pontiff at his accession or on occasions of some unexpected celebration, as was done, for example, at the convening of the First Vatican Council , or again at times of great calamity. In , he greatly liberalized the conditions for gaining the Jubilee indulgence.

A visit to only one of the four patriarchal basilicas in Rome was necessary entering through the holy door.

To the four baslicas were added the Sanctuary of Divine Love in Rome, and each diocese was permitted to name a location within the diocese where the indulgence could be gained.

For instance, the diocese of Rome added the chapel in the airport at Fiumicino as a possible pilgrimage site. Most dioceses simply named the local cathedral as the pilgrimage site. Multiple visits were not required. On the last full day of the Jubilee, pilgrims were permitted to enter the holy door at St. The requirements of confession, communion, prayer for the pope, and freedom from all attachment to sin remained in place, as for all plenary indulgences. List of Jubilee years[ edit ].