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In addition, two other sites were also used as gas chambers but only for a few gassing actions: The Zyklon B was poured into the gas chamber through openings in the roof. This gas chamber had no dummy shower fittings on the ceiling. The use of the mortuary had an additional benefit in that it possessed a strong ventilation system, in contrast to the cellar of Block The gas chamber was put into operation in autumn The last killings were carried out in December when the Sonderkommando, which had removed the corpses of the first mass graves in Birkenau, was gassed.
After its use as a gas chamber the SS used the building as an execution site. Following completion of the four large crematories at Birkenau the gas chamber was used for other purposes, and in it was converted into an air-raid bunker. After the liberation of Auschwitz the building was partly re-constructed into its original state.
The provisional Gas Chambers Bunker 1 and Bunker 2 in Birkenau Location of Bunker 1 and 2 Because the capacity of Crematory I was not sufficient for the increasing number who were to be killed if Auschwitz was to play a key role in the extermination of the European Jews, and because the location was too near to the Stammlager, the camp administration found an alternative solution at the Birkenau camp site. Two empty houses belonging to expelled Poles were converted into gas chambers.
Location of Bunker 1 Bunker 1, also called the "Red House" because of its red, unplastered walls, was located at the north border of the Birkenau camp, at the later construction section III.
The building measured about 15 x 6 m and originally had four rooms, which were now converted into two gas chambers. Each room had a door, and the windows were sealed with bricks.
For the introduction of the gas, each of the two rooms had two openings about 30 x 40 cm in the outer walls which could be closed with gas-tight flaps. The doors were made air-tight with felt, and could be additionally tightened with screws. Signs "to disinfection" were posted at the doors. Inside the gas chambers the walls were painted white, and the floor was covered with sawdust after each gassing. Because a ventilation system was not installed, the aeration took a long time.
In the beginning, the gassings were carried out at night, later in the daytime as well because of too many and too unpunctual transports. Each gas chamber could contain up to victims. The corpses were buried in mass graves nearby. It is not clear when Bunker 1 was put into operation.
Danuta Czech mentions late March , other researchers van Pelt and Pressac think that it happened in May. Probably it was in March because it was then that the big extermination actions of the Jews from Upper Silesia Oberschlesien started.
When the large crematories at Birkenau were put into operation in spring and summer , the primitive and provisional gas chambers of Bunker 1 were no longer necessary, and the building was demolished probably in March Remnants of Bunker 2 Bunker 2, also called the "White House" because of its colour, was located at the west end of the Birkenau camp, some hundred metres behind the later "Zentralsauna". It was put into action as a gas chamber building, probably in June This house measured 17 x 8 m.
Its rooms were converted into four gas chambers of different sizes. In contrast to Bunker 1 all gas chambers had two doors which provided a more rapid ventilation after the gassings. The other installations were similar to Bunker 1. The daily killing quota was higher than in Bunker 1 because of the "two doors system" and the larger gas chambers. Nevertheless being present in the night during a special action against a Dutch transport 1, persons.
Horrible scene in front of the last Bunker! That was the 10th special action. However Kremer made a mistake in his diary, speaking of Dutch Jews. There is every indication that they were Jews from Belgium who came from Mechelen and arrived on Oktober in Auschwitz transports no.
Bunker 2 was no longer used when the large crematories were put into action. The wooden barracks which were used as undressing rooms, were demolished. The brick building remained unused until summer when it was used again as a gassing facility for Hungarian Jews.
During this "Hungarian Action" the building was called Bunker 5. It was demolished in November Old "Judenrampe" "Two farm-houses which were in a secluded part of Birkenau area were sealed and converted into gas chambers with strong wooden doors, and the windows bricked up. The transports themselves were unloaded at a side-track in Birkenau, outside of the camp.
The prisoners fit for work were selected and marched off to the camps; all the luggage was put down and later brought to the securities warehouses. The others, destined for gassing, went by foot to the facility 1 km away. When transports arrived at night all were transported there by lorries. In front of the farm-houses all had to undress behind erected walls made from brushwood.
On the doors "Desinfektionsraum" Disinfection room" was painted. This calmed the people, and they were fooled into thinking, they really were going to be deloused. Then the naked entered the rooms, according to the size between people. The doors were screwed shut and cans Zyklon B scattered in through small openings. This was a grainy mass of prussic acid. The gassing lasted minutes, depending on the weather.
After half an hour the doors were opened and the corpses were pulled out by a prisoners command which permanently worked there; then the corpses were cremated in pits. Prior to the burning the gold teeth and rings were removed; between the corpses firewood was laid, and when corpses were piled up, the firewood was set on fire with rags soaked with paraffin.
When the fire was well burning the other corpses were added.
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That fat which assembled at the bottom of the pits was added to the fire by use of buckets to accelerate the burning, especially during bad weather. The cremation process took hours. One could smell the stench of the burning corpses even in the camp, when the wind blew from the west.
After clearing of the pits the ashes were pulverized. This happened on a concrete slab where prisoners crushed the bone remnants with wooden crashers. These residues were brought with lorries to a secluded site and thrown into the Vistula Weichsel River. Originally this new crematory was to be built at the Auschwitz Stammlager but in spring the SS decided to build it at Birkenau, at the rear of the broad main street of the camp, between the construction areas B I and B II where in spring the new ramp was built.
Because the SS changed the plans several times, the designated location became invalid in summer Now Auschwitz-Birkenau was intended to play the key role in the extermination of the European Jews. Originally Crematory II was designed to have two large subterranean mortuaries.
In the course of the planning of this facility the SS decided to build a crematory 15 ovens with an adjacent gas chamber. Therefore the originally planned slide for corpses was replaced by a staircase for the still living victims to enter the gas chamber. The staircase is shown very late in the construction drawings, while an important change to the door is to be seen in a drawing dated 2 December The door of the mortuary, now a gas chamber, was changed; now it opened towards the outside.
To obtain sufficient capacity, the SS decided in August to build another, identical crematory. In addition two more identical crematories were planned, with gas chambers above ground and fewer ovens Crematories IV and V. A sixth, even larger crematory, was discussed but was neither drawn nor realized.
Although prisoners and civilian workers laboured at maximum speed, the construction works could not be finished as planned in mid-February but one month later. The first mass murder in Crematory II took place on 13 March On this day about 1.
The gas chamber was 30 m long, 7 m wide, and 2. The ceiling consisted of about 22 cm reinforced concrete covered with 45 cm of earth. In late a wall was constructed in the gas chamber to create two separate gas chambers. If smaller transports had to be gassed, now only one of these smaller rooms the rear one was used to save gas and to accelerate the killing.
False showers were installed to deceive the victims and to keep up the infamous lie of bathing and disinfection.
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Because it took a while until all victims had undressed and entered the gas chamber, the first ones had time to inspect the room the SS had installed lamps in the gas chambers to avoid panic. Therefore it happened that people became suspicious; panic broke out which was brutally put down by the armed SS men.
The gas-tight entrance door was cm high, cm wide, and contained a spy hole which was secured from inside with an iron grille. The door was usually closed by use of a latch but could also be fastened with screws since the victims pressed against the door when they realized their fate.
The ceiling was propped up by seven concrete pillars. The insertion openings for the poison gas were located beside pillars nos. They consisted of a quadrangular, 70 x 70 cm wire net column which reached from the floor to the ceiling. These special pillars had two outer layers made of wire nets with different mesh sizes. In the centre they had a movable nucleus also made from wire nets. This nucleus served as container for the carrier material for the Zyklon B gas.
When a gassing took place, the gas-tight caps at the upper ends of the "wire net gassing pillars", on top of the ceiling above ground were opened by an "SS disinfector" who then poured the gas into the container. Then it was quickly let down by a cord to the floor of the gas chamber, and the cap put on the opening.
After the gassing procedure the containers were pulled up and emptied. The basic idea of these installations was to spread the gas as quickly as possible and to therefore speed up the killing process. Nevertheless, there is clear evidence to prove their existence.