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It was asked to advise on any alterations to the existing police necessary for the formation of a new force i. The RUC was limited by statute to a 3,strong force. The first two thousand places were filled quickly and those reserved for Catholics were filled mainly by ex-RIC men fleeing north.
Due to reluctance by the political establishment to employ too many Catholics who were seen as potentially disloyal to the Protestant and unionist ethos of the new government , the force abandoned this policy. In addition, many Roman Catholics who joined the force, particularly during the troubles were targeted for murder or ostracised by their own community.
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The lawlessness that affected Northern Ireland in the period of the early s, and the problems it caused for the police, are indicated in a police report drawn up by District Inspector R. Spears in February Referring to the situation in Belfast after July he stated: For twelve months after that, the city was in a state of turmoil.
The IRA Irish Republican Army was responsible for an enormous number of murders, bombings, shootings and incendiary fires. The work of the police against them was, however, greatly hampered by the fact that the rough element on the Protestant side entered thoroughly into the disturbances, met murder with murder and adopted in many respects the tactics of the rebel gunmen. In the endeavour to cope simultaneously with the warring factions the police efforts were practically nullified. They were quite unable to rely on the restraint of one party while they dealt with the other.
The security forces were implicated, but no convictions ever rendered, in reprisal killings of Catholics, notably the McMahon killings on 26 March in which six Catholics were killed, and the Arnon Street killings , several days later on 1 April , in which six more Catholics were shot dead in retaliation for the IRA killing of a policeman.
For the next forty-five years the murder rate was lower than in the rest of the UK and the crime detection rate was higher. This contributed to the already high level of unemployment. Serious rioting broke out in in Belfast in protest at the inadequate nature and level of relief for the unemployed  and the threat of rioting was ever present.
About the same time the Criminal Investigation Department CID in Belfast was significantly expanded, with a detective head constable being appointed to head the CID force in each of the five Belfast police districts. There was sporadic Irish Republican Army activity in the s. This campaign effectively ended on the 25 August, a few days before the outbreak of the Second World War.
The war brought additional responsibilities for the police. The security of the land border with the Republic of Ireland , which remained neutral during the war, was one important consideration. Allied to this was a greatly increased incidence of smuggling due to rationing, to the point where police virtually became revenue officers. There were also many wartime regulations to be enforced, including "black-out" requirements on house and vehicle lights, the arrest of striking workers, port security, and restrictions on the movement of vehicles and use of petrol.
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The wartime situation gave a new urgency to the discussions regarding the appointment of women police. Post-war policies brought about a gradual improvement in the lot of the RUC, interrupted only by a return to hostilities by the IRA border campaign from to , in which seven RUC officers were killed. The force was streamlined in the s, a new headquarters was opened at Knock, Belfast and a number of rural barracks were closed.
In , the hour work week was introduced. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
February The neutrality of this section is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.
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February Learn how and when to remove this template message Picture showing the fortifications of the RUC station in Dungiven. The civil rights protests during the s, and the reaction to them, marked the beginning of the conflict that became known as " the Troubles ".
The RUC found itself confronting marchers protesting against gerrymandering of local electoral wards and discrimination in local housing allocation. The Ulster Special Constabulary were controversial, with the unit seen by some nationalists as more anti-Catholic and anti-nationalist than the RUC, which, unlike the B Specials, did attract some Catholic recruits. The severe pressure on the RUC and the perceived partiality of the B-Specials led, during the Northern Ireland riots of August , to the British Army being called in to support the civil administration under Operation Banner.
However, Catholics largely turned away from the British Army, who they saw as treating Protestants differently, especially after the Falls Curfew. The Hunt Report was published on 3 October , and most of its recommendations were subsequently accepted and implemented.
The aim was to completely reorganise the RUC, both modernizing the force and bringing it into line with the other police forces in the UK. This meant the introduction of the British rank and promotion structure ,  the creation of 12 Police Divisions and 39 Sub-Divisions, the disbandment of the Ulster Special Constabulary,  and the creation of a Police Authority designed to be representative of all segments of the community. The RUC Reserve was formed as an auxiliary police force, and all military-style duties were handed over to the newly formed Ulster Defence Regiment , which was under military command and replaced the B Specials.
Callaghan selected Young, a career policeman, because no other British policeman could match his direct experience of policing acutely unstable societies and of reforming gendarmeries. Later, he had been seconded to the Federation of Malaya at the height of the Malayan Emergency —53 and to the crown colony of Kenya during Mau Mau Francis McCloskey, a year-old Catholic civilian had been found unconscious on 13 July near the Dungiven Orange Hall following a police baton charge against a crowd who had been throwing stones at the hall.
Witnesses later said they had seen police batoning a figure in the doorway where McCloskey was found, although police claimed that he had been unconscious before the baton charge and may have been hit with a stone.
He was taken to hospital and died the following day. Arbuckle was the first police fatality of the Troubles. In August , two young constables, Donaldson and Millar, died when an abandoned car they were examining near the strongly republican town of Crossmaglen exploded. They became the first security forces victims of the Provisional Irish Republican Army campaign.
This campaign involved the targeting of police officers, and continued until the final ceasefire in , as the peace process gained momentum. Northern Ireland subsequently came under direct rule from Westminster with its own Secretary of State , who had overall responsibility for security policy. From the mids onward, the British policy of Ulsterisation meant RUC officers taking a more prominent role in the conflict than previously, which increased their casualty rate.
This led to accusations of a shoot-to-kill policy by the RUC. In September , four officers were charged with murder in connection with the deaths. Although all were subsequently found not guilty, the British government set up the Stalker Inquiry to investigate further. In May , Sir John Hermon , then Chief Constable , publicly accused unionist politicians of "consorting with paramilitary elements".
At least RUC families were forced to move as a result. In Chief Constable Ronnie Flanagan stated in an interview on television that he was unhappy with any RUC officers belonging to the Orange Order or any of the other loyal orders. The size of the RUC was increased on several occasions.
At its height, there were 8, regular police officers supported by about 5, full-time and part-time reserve officers, making it the second largest force in the United Kingdom after the Metropolitan Police in London. For operational purposes, Northern Ireland was divided into twelve Divisions and thirty-nine Sub-Divisions.
RUC ranks, duties, conditions of service and pay were generally in line with those of police forces in Great Britain. Ulster Unionists, fearful of being isolated on the island, built a solid house, but it was a cold house for Catholics. And northern nationalists, although they had a roof over their heads, seemed to us as if they meant to burn the house down  In August , Dawson Bates gave the Orange Order special permission for an Orange Lodge to be formed in the RUC.
In April he spoke at its first reunion. In John William Nixon , a District Inspector suspected of involvement in the murder of Catholic civilians, would be dismissed after widespread complaints that he had made a "fiercely Unionist" speech at an Orange Order function. Three days later, the Civil Authorities Special Powers Act Northern Ireland came into force, and the Belfast government, although prohibited from raising or controlling a military force, appointed Major General Frederick Solly-Flood as a military advisor.
It was intended that half of the RIC men recruited were to be Catholic, making up a third of positions within the force. However, fewer than half the expected number of Catholics came forward and the balance was made up with more A Specials, who continued to exist as a separate force.
The RUC did attract some Roman Catholics , mostly former members of the RIC, who came north from the Irish Free State after the bitterness of the fighting during the Anglo-Irish War largely precluded them from remaining in territory now controlled by their enemies.
The percentage of Catholics in the RUC dropped as these men retired over time. All but 12 of the dead were killed during the Troubles to , of whom were killed in attacks by self-identified Irish republicans. August Learn how and when to remove this template message Ill-treatment of children[ edit ] The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Both Catholic and Protestant children alleged regular and severe physical assault and mental harassment at the hands of RUC officers, usually conducted to force a false confession of a crime.
Police officers and soldiers harass young people on the street hitting, kicking and insulting them. Police officers in interrogation centres insult, trick and threaten youngsters and sometimes physically assault them.
Children are locked up in adult detention centres and prisons in shameful conditions. Helsinki Watch heard dozens of stories from children, their parents, lawyers, youth workers and political leaders of children being stopped on the street and hit, kicked and abused again and again by police and soldiers.
And seventeen-year-olds told Human Rights Watch Helsinki of severe beatings in detention during interrogations by police. Patten Report The Good Friday Agreement GFA of produced a wholesale reorganisation of inter-community, governmental and policing systems, including a power-sharing executive.
The review was published in September It recommended a wholesale reorganisation of policing, with the Royal Ulster Constabulary being replaced by the Police Service of Northern Ireland PSNI , and a drive to recruit Catholics and the adoption of a new crest and cap badge.
As part of the change, the police service dropped the word "Royal" from and adopted a new badge that included the crown, harp, and shamrock, an attempt at representation of the major ideologies.