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Overview[ edit ] Large numbers of African slaves and European, mostly Spanish, immigrants came to Cuba and brought their own forms of music to the island. European dances and folk musics included zapateo , fandango , paso doble and retambico. Later, northern European forms like minuet , gavotte , mazurka , contradanza , and the waltz appeared among urban whites.
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There was also an immigration of Chinese indentured laborers later in the 19th century. The African slaves and their descendants made many percussion instruments and preserved rhythms they had known in their homeland. Claves are still used often, and wooden boxes cajones were widely used during periods when the drum was banned.
In addition, there are other percussion instruments in use for African-origin religious ceremonies. Chinese immigrants contributed the corneta china Chinese cornet , a Chinese reed instrument still played in the comparsas , or carnival groups, of Santiago de Cuba. The great instrumental contribution of the Spanish was their guitar , but even more important was the tradition of European musical notation and techniques of musical composition.
He reported instruments including the clarinet , violin and vihuela. There were few professional musicians at the time, and fewer still of their songs survive. The piece is said to be similar to 16th-, 17th- and 18th-century Spanish popular songs and dances. Important among these are France and its colonies in the Americas , and the United States. Cuban music has been immensely influential[ citation needed ] in other countries.
Polyrhythmic percussion is an inherent part of African music, as melody is part of European music. Also, in African tradition, percussion is always joined to song and dance, and to a particular social setting. This creolization of Cuban life has been happening for a long time, and by the 20th century, elements of African belief, music and dance were well integrated into popular and folk forms.
He encouraged continuous and diverse musical events. While many contradanzas were written for dance, from the mid-century several were written as light-classical parlor pieces for piano. The first distinguished composer in this style was Manuel Saumell — , who is sometimes accordingly hailed as the father of Cuban creole musical development.
Cervantes was called by Aaron Copland a "Cuban Chopin " because of his Chopinesque piano compositions. Non-Cubans sometimes called Cuban contradanzas "habaneras. This was later lengthened and staged under the title Seila. His numerous works spanned all genres.
Gaspar Villate — produced abundant and wide-ranging work, all centered on opera. He learned to play sixteen instruments, and lived, variously, in Cuba, Latin America and Paris. His most famous work is La bella cubana, a habanera. Gottschalk During the middle years of the 19th century, a young American musician came to Havana: Louis Moreau Gottschalk — , whose father was a Jewish businessman from London, and his mother a white creole of French Catholic background.
He was a piano prodigy who had listened to the music and seen the dancing in Congo Square , New Orleans from childhood. His period in Cuba lasted from to , with visits to Puerto Rico and Martinique squeezed in. He composed many creolized pieces, such as the habanera Bamboula, Op. These numbers made use of typical Cuban rhythmic patterns. The work used about musicians and a choir of singers plus a tumba francesa group from Santiago de Cuba.
He produced another huge concert the following year, with new material. These shows probably dwarfed anything seen in the island before or since, and no doubt were unforgettable for those who attended. There he met Caturla, at sixteen a second violin. La Rebambaramba and El milagro de Anaquille There followed a series of Ritmicas and Poema negra and Tres toques march, rites, dance His last composition was two Piezas infantiles for piano Roldan died young, at 38, of a disfiguring facial cancer he had been an inveterate smoker.
His Tres danzas cubanas for symphony orchestra was first performed in Spain in Bembe was premiered in Havana the same year. His Obertura cubana won first prize in a national contest in Caturla was murdered at 34 by a young gambler. In he was one of the founders of the National Symphony Orchestra, which he conducted. In he was appointed Director of the Havana School of Music. As a composer he specialized in the zarzuela , a musical theatre form, very popular up to World War II.
Recuerdos del Cecilio (2003) - Release Info - IMDb
In he co-founded a bufo company comic theatre at the Marti Theatre in Havana. It was premiered in He founded various organizations and wrote frequently on musical topics. He was a prolific composer of songs and music for stage and film.
His works consisted of zarzuela , Afro-Cuban and Cuban rhythms, suites and many songs that became Latin standards. During its existence from to , the group organized numerous concerts at the Havana Lyceum in order to present their avant-garde compositions to the general public and fostered within its members the development of many future conductors, art critics, performers and professors. From then on most musicians have kept their careers on one side of the invisible line or the other.
After the Cuban Revolution in , a new crop of classical musicians came onto the scene. The most important of these is guitarist Leo Brouwer , who made significant innovations in classical guitar, and is currently the director of the Havana Symphonic Orchestra. His directorship in the early s of the Cuban Institute of Instrumental and Cinematographic Arts ICAIC was instrumental in the formation and consolidation of the nueva trova movement.
Other important composers from the early post-revolution period that began in were: Right row, top to bottom: Closely following the early post-revolution generation, a group of young composers started to attract the attention of the public that attended classical music concerts. Most of them received a solid musical education provided by the official arts school system created by the Cuban government and graduated from the Instituto Superior de Arte ISA. All of them have emigrated and currently live and work in other countries.
Electroacoustic music in Cuba[ edit ] Juan Blanco was the first Cuban composer to create an electroacoustic piece in This first composition, titled "Musica Para Danza", was produced with just an oscillator and three common tape recorders.
As a result of the enormous scarcity generated by the Cuban Revolution since its origins in , access to the necessary technological resources to produce electroacoustic music was always very limited for anyone interested.
For this reason, it was not until that another Cuban composer, Sergio Barroso , dedicated himself to the creation of electroacoustic musical compositions. In this capacity, he created electroacoustic music for all the audiovisual materials produced by ICAP. After nine years working without restitution, Blanco finally obtained financing to set up an Electroacoustic Studio to be used for his work.
He was appointed as Director of the Studio, but under the condition that he should be the only one to use the facility. After a few months, and without asking for permission, he opened the Electroacoustic Studio to all composers interested in working with electroacoustic technology, thus creating the ICAP Electroacoustsic Music Workshop TIME , where he himself provided training to all participants.
Classical Guitar in Cuba From the 16th to the 19th century[ edit ] The guitar as it is known today or in one of its historical versions has been present in Cuba since the discovery of the island by Spain. In he performed at a much acclaimed concert in Havana, after returning from Spain. Mungol actively participated in the musical life of Havana and was a professor at the Hubert de Blanck conservatory. She inaugurated the guitar department at the Havana Municipal Conservatory in , where she also introduced the teachings of the Cuban folk guitar style.
This was a nucleus for the later development of a national Cuban Guitar School with which a new generation of guitarists and composers collaborated. The grandson of Ernestina Lecuona, sister of Ernesto Lecuona, Brouwer began studying the guitar with his father and after some time continued with Isaac Nicola.
He taught himself harmony, counterpoint, musical forms and orchestration before completing his studies at the Juilliard School and the University of Hartford. Since the s, several generations of guitar performers, professors and composers have been formed under the Cuban Guitar School at educational institutions such as the Havana Municipal Conservatory, the National School of Arts, and the Instituto Superior de Arte.
Others, such as Manuel Barrueco , a concertist of international renown, developed their careers outside the country. Classical piano in Cuba[ edit ] Main article: Classical piano in Cuba Ernesto Lecuona After its arrival in Cuba at the end of the 18th century, the pianoforte commonly called piano rapidly became one of the favorite instruments among the Cuban population.
Along with the humble guitar, the piano accompanied the popular Cuban "guarachas" and "contradanzas" derived from the European Country Dances at salons and ballrooms in Havana and all over the country.
Encouraged by the warm welcome, Edelmann decided to stay in Havana, and he was very soon promoted to an important position within the Santa Cecilia Philharmonic Society. In , he opened a music store and publishing company.
When he graduated from the National Conservatory, he was awarded the First Prize and the Gold Medal of his class by unanimous decision of the board.
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He is by far the Cuban composer of greatest international recognition and his contributions to the Cuban piano tradition are considered exceptional. The renaissance viol is the direct ancestor of the modern Italian violins, which began to become popular since the 16th century.
To fulfill his musical duties, Salas counted with a small vocal-instrumental group that included two violins. Apart from his activity as a violinist, Estrada kept a very active musical career as a conductor of numerous orchestras, bands and operas, and composing many contradanzas and other dance pieces, such as minuets and valses.
Vandergutch offered numeorus concerts as a soloist and accompanied by several orchestras, around the midth century. In that presentation he was accompanied by the famous American pianist and composer Louis Moreau Gottschalk , whom encouraged him to further his musical instruction in Paris, and also collected funds for that purpose. At a later time he was a professor of the renowned violinists George Enescu and Jacques Thibaud.
White also composed many other pieces, including a concert for violin and orchestra. He offered his first concert in Havana in , in which Vandegutch participated as accompanist.
The famous pianist and composer Ignacio Cervantes also participated in that event. According with the contemporary critique, Brindis de Salas was considered one of the most outstanding violinists of his time at an international level. Alejo Carpentier referred to him as: In Buenos Aires he received a genuine Stradivarius , and while living in Berlin he married a German lady, was named Chamber Musician of the Emperor and received an honorary citizenship from that country.