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French conquest of Algeria Battle of Somah in On the pretext of a slight to their consul, the French invaded Algeria in It allowed Muslims to apply for full French citizenship, a measure that few took, since it involved renouncing the right to be governed by sharia law in personal matters and was considered a kind of apostasy.
Its first article stipulated: The indigenous Muslim is French; however, he will continue to be subjected to Muslim law. He may be called to functions and civil employment in Algeria. He may, on his demand, be admitted to enjoy the rights of a French citizen; in this case, he is subjected to the political and civil laws of France.
journaux d'Alger de 1954 1962 Echo d'Alger, depeche quotidienne, le journal, la chronologie
The Law of September 20, , granted French citizenship to all Algerian subjects, who were not required to renounce their Muslim personal status. Amid growing discontent from the Algerian population, the Third Republic — acknowledged some demands, and the Popular Front initiated the Blum-Viollette proposal in which was supposed to enlighten the Indigenous Code by giving French citizenship to a small number of Muslims.
This new party was dissolved in France, which had just lost Indochina , was determined not to lose the next anti-colonial war, particularly not in its oldest and nearest major colony, which was regarded as an integral part of the republic. From Cairo , the FLN broadcast a proclamation calling on Muslims in Algeria to join in a national struggle for the "restoration of the Algerian state — sovereign, democratic and social — within the framework of the principles of Islam.
He declared in the National Assembly, "One does not compromise when it comes to defending the internal peace of the nation, the unity and integrity of the Republic. The Algerian departments are part of the French Republic.
They have been French for a long time, and they are irrevocably French. Between them and metropolitan France there can be no conceivable secession. Fewer than fellaghas pro-Independence fighters could be counted at the beginning of the conflict. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
The communists , who had made no move to cooperate in the uprising at the start, later tried to infiltrate the FLN, but FLN leaders publicly repudiated the support of the party.
Bendjelloul and the pro-integrationist moderates had already abandoned their efforts to mediate between the French and the rebels.
Les éphémérides d'Alcide 4 juillet
The six historical Leaders of the FLN: On the political front, the FLN worked to persuade—and to coerce—the Algerian masses to support the aims of the independence movement through contributions. As the FLN campaign of influence spread through the countryside, many European farmers in the interior called Pieds-Noirs , many of whom lived on lands taken from Muslim communities during the nineteenth century,  sold their holdings and sought refuge in Algiers and other Algerian cities.
Colon vigilante units, whose unauthorized activities were conducted with the passive cooperation of police authorities, carried out ratonnades literally, rat-hunts, raton being a racist term for denigrating Muslim Algerians against suspected FLN members of the Muslim community.
By , effective political action groups within the Algerian colonial community succeeded in convincing many of the governors general sent by Paris that the military was not the way to resolve the conflict. A major success was the conversion of Jacques Soustelle , who went to Algeria as governor general in January determined to restore peace. Soustelle, a one-time leftist and by an ardent Gaullist, began an ambitious reform program the Soustelle Plan aimed at improving economic conditions among the Muslim population.
After the Philippeville massacre[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification.