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Background[ edit ] Yukon at the time of discovery. The indigenous peoples in north-west America had traded in copper nuggets prior to European expansion.
Most of the tribes were aware that gold existed in the region, but the metal was not valued by them. In three years it grew to become "the Paris of Alaska", with 1, inhabitants, saloons, opera houses, schools, and libraries.
In , it was so well known that a correspondent from the Chicago Daily Record came to visit. At the end of the year, it became a ghost town, when large gold deposits were found upstream on the Klondike. George Carmack or Skookum Jim, but the group agreed to let George Carmack appear as the official discoverer because they feared that mining authorities would be reluctant to recognize a claim made by an Indigenous Person.
Overland Trail (Yukon) - Wikipedia
He discovered new sources of gold there, which would prove to be even richer than those on Bonanza. Despite the winter, many prospectors immediately left for the Yukon by dog-sled, eager to reach the region before the best claims were taken. It began on July 15, in San Francisco and was spurred further two days later in Seattle , when the first of the early prospectors returned from the Klondike, bringing with them large amounts of gold on the ships Excelsior and Portland.
Economically, the news had reached the US at the height of a series of financial recessions and bank failures in the s.
The gold standard of the time tied paper money to the production of gold and shortages towards the end of the 19th century meant that gold dollars were rapidly increasing in value ahead of paper currencies and being hoarded. A worldwide publicity campaign engineered largely by Erastus Brainerd , a Seattle newspaper man, helped establish the city as the premier supply centre and the departure point for the gold fields.
John McGraw , the former governor of Washington joined, together with the prominent lawyer and sportsman A. Frederick Burnham , a well-known American scout and explorer, arrived from Africa, only to be called back to take part in the Second Boer War.
Wood, the mayor of Seattle, who resigned and formed a company to transport prospectors to the Klondike. Clothing, equipment, food, and medicines were all sold as "Klondike" goods, allegedly designed for the north-west. For details see appendix. The Klondike could be reached only by the Yukon River, either upstream from its delta, downstream from its head, or from somewhere in the middle through its tributaries. River boats could navigate the Yukon in the summer from the delta until a point called Whitehorse, above the Klondike.
Travel in general was made difficult by both the geography and climate. It led to the ports of Dyea and Skagway plus ports of nearby trails. The sudden increase in demand encouraged a range of vessels to be pressed into service including old paddle wheelers , fishing boats, barges, and coal ships still full of coal dust.
All were overloaded and many sank. Michael , at the Yukon River delta, a river boat could then take the prospectors the rest of the way up the river to Dawson, often guided by one of the Native Koyukon people who lived near St.
A dog-puncher on the Yukon, (Book, 1928) [luokai.info]
Tlingits or, less commonly, Tagish. Steps were cut into the ice at the Chilkoot Pass which could be used for a daily fee, this 1, step staircase becoming known as the "Golden Steps". A horse at the bottom turned a wheel, which pulled a rope running to the top and back; freight was loaded on sledges pulled by the rope.
Parallel trails[ edit ] There were a few more trails established during from South-east Alaska to the Yukon River. One was the Dalton trail: From here, it followed a river to the Yukon, where it met the Dyea and Skagway route at a point halfway to the Klondike. Finally, there was the Stikine route starting from the port of Wrangell further south-east of Skagway.
This route went up the uneasy Stikine River to Glenora, the head of navigation. An alternative to the South-east Alaskan ports were the All-Canadian routes, so-called because they mostly stayed on Canadian soil throughout their journey. Chalmers to build a trail, which became known as the Klondike Trail or Chalmers Trail.
One went by boat along rivers and overland to the Yukon River system at Pelly River and from there to Dawson. An estimated 1, travellers took these three routes, of whom only arrived, some taking up to 18 months to make the journey. Their expedition was forced to turn back the same way they had come with only four men surviving.
Yukon Gold (1928) - Quotes - IMDb
American businessmen complained that their right to a monopoly on regional trade was being undermined, while the Canadian public demanded action against the American miners.
Of these, no more than 4, struck gold and only a few hundred became rich. Initially, miners had assumed that all the gold would be along the existing creeks, and it was not until late in that the hilltops began to be mined. Mining methods of the Klondike Gold Rush Mining in a shaft, Mining began with clearing the ground of vegetation and debris. The process was repeated until the gold was reached.
In theory, no support of the shaft was necessary because of the permafrost although in practice sometimes the fire melted the permafrost and caused collapses.
Instead, these mines used rockers, boxes that moved back and forth like a cradle, to create the motion needed for separation. Should the prospector leave the claim for more than three days without good reason, another miner could make a claim on the land. However, their price depended on whether they had been yet proved to contain gold.
Some chose to sell their equipment and return south. By contrast, especially the port of Skagway under US jurisdiction in Southeast Alaska became infamous for its criminal underworld.