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The tournament was divided into two sections: The Championship section was for players who had previously won an international tournament. These players were described as grandmasters for the purposes of the tournament.
Tied for second with 12 points were Aron Nimzowitsch and Rudolf Spielmann.
Petersburg chess tournament , the title "Grandmaster" was formally conferred by Russian Tsar Nicholas II , who had partially funded the tournament.
This title was abolished in , after having been awarded to Boris Verlinsky , who won the Soviet Championship. Verlinsky did not get his title back.
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FIDE first awarded the Grandmaster title in to 27 players. Players still living who, though past their best in , were recognised as having been world class when at their peak: Since FIDE did not award the Grandmaster title posthumously, world-class players who died prior to , including World Champions Steinitz , Lasker, Capablanca, and Alekhine, never received the title.
Efim Bogoljubov , who had emigrated from the Soviet Union to Germany, was not entered in the first class of Grandmasters, even though he had played two matches for the World Championship with Alekhine.
He received the title in , by a vote of thirteen to eight with five abstentions.
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Yugoslavia supported his application, but all other Communist countries opposed it. In , FIDE abolished the old regulations, although a provision was maintained that allowed older masters who had been overlooked to be awarded titles.
The new regulations awarded the title of International Grandmaster of the FIDE to players meeting any of the following criteria: Masters who have the absolute right to play in the World Championship Candidates Tournament , or any player who replaces an absent contestant and earns at least a 50 percent score.
The winner of an international tournament meeting specified standards, and any player placing second in two such tournaments within a span of four years. The tournament must be at least eleven rounds with seven or more players, 80 percent or more being International Grandmasters or International Masters.
Additionally, 30 percent of the players must be Grandmasters who have the absolute right to play in the next World Championship Candidates Tournament, or who have played in such a tournament in the previous ten years. A player who demonstrates ability manifestly equal to that of 3 above in an international tournament or match.
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Such titles must be approved by the Qualification Committee with the support of at least five members. Any player qualifying from the Interzonal tournament to play in the Candidates Tournament, even if he did not play in the Candidates for any reason. Any player who would qualify from the Interzonal to play in the Candidates but who was excluded because of a limitation on the number of participants from his Federation.
Recommendations were based on performance in qualifying tournaments, with the required score depending on the percentage of Grandmasters and International Masters in the tournament. At the Congress in Tel Aviv , a subcommittee was formed to propose changes to the regulations. The subcommittee recommended that the automatic award of titles be abolished, criticized the methods used for awarding titles based on qualifying performances, and called for a change in the makeup of the Qualification Committee.
Several delegates supported the subcommittee recommendations, including GM Miguel Najdorf who felt that existing regulations were leading to an inflation of international titles. The International Grandmaster title regulations were: Any World Champion is automatically awarded the GM title 2a.
Anyone who scores at least 40 percent in a quarter-final match in the Candidates Tournament 2b. Scores at least the number of points in a tournament corresponding to the total of a 55 percent score against Grandmasters plus 75 percent against International Masters IM plus 85 percent against other players a GM " norm ". To fulfill requirement 2b, the candidate must score one GM norm in a category 1a tournament or two norms within a three-year period in two Category 1b tournaments, or one Category 2a tournament and one Category 1b tournament.
The categories of tournaments are: In addition, no more than 50 percent plus one of the players can be from the same country for tournaments of 10 to 12 players, or no more than 50 percent plus two for larger tournaments. Seventy-four GM titles were awarded in through During that period, ten GM titles were awarded in , but only one in and in The recommendations of the Committee report were adopted in full. The establishment of an updated list of players and their Elo rating enabled significantly strong international chess tournaments to be allocated a "Category", based on the average rating of the contestants.
The higher the tournament Category, the stronger the tournament. Another vital component involved the setting of meritorious "scores" for each Category of tournament. A player must meet or surpass the relevant score to demonstrate that they had performed at Grandmaster GM or International Master IM level. Tournament organisers could then apply the percentages to their own tournament format and declare in advance the actual score that participants must achieve to attain a GM or IM result nowadays referred to as a norm.