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The oldest such record comes from the Roman historian Tacitus in his Germania: Fuisse apud eos et Herculem memorant, primumque omnium virorum fortium ituri in proelia canunt. Sunt illis haec quoque carmina, quorum relatu, quem barditum vocant, accendunt animos futuraeque pugnae fortunam ipso cantu augurantur.
Terrent enim trepidantve, prout sonuit acies, nec tam vocis ille quam virtutis concentus videtur. Adfectatur praecipue asperitas soni et fractum murmur, obiectis ad os scutis, quo plenior et gravior vox repercussu intumescat. They have also those songs of theirs, by the recital of this "baritus," as they call it, they rouse their courage, while from the note they augur the result of the approaching conflict. For, as their line shouts, they inspire or feel alarm. It is not so much an articulate sound, as a general cry of valor.
They aim chiefly at a harsh note and a confused roar, putting their shields to their mouth, so that, by reverberation, it may swell into a fuller and deeper sound. Ammianus Marcellinus wrote later of these events: The poetry described in this account was likely similar to Germanic music for celebrations. When evening fell torches were lit, and two barbarians coming forward in front of Attila sang songs they had composed, celebrating his victories and deeds of valour in war.
And of the guests, as they looked at the singers, some were pleased with the verses, others reminded of wars were excited in their souls, while yet others, whose bodies were feeble with age and their spirits compelled to rest, shed tears Priscus, Fragment 8 of Excerpta de legationibus.
Now from this island of Scandza, as from a hive of races or a womb of nations, the Goths are said to have come forth long ago under their king, Berig by name Thence the victors hastened to the farthest part of Scythia, which is near the sea of Pontus; for so the story is generally told in their early songs, in almost historic fashion Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths IV: In earliest times they sang of the deeds of their ancestors in strains of song accompanied by the cithara; chanting of Eterpamara, Hanala, Fritigern, Vidigoia and others whose fame among them is great; such heroes as admiring antiquity scarce proclaims its own to be Jordanes, The Origin and Deeds of the Goths V: In another context Jordanes writes of the Capillati the long-haired: These and various other matters Dicineus taught the Goths in his wisdom and gained marvellous repute among them, so that he ruled not only the common men but their kings.
He chose from among them those that were at that time of noblest birth and superior wisdom and taught them theology, bidding them worship certain divinities and holy places. He gave the name of Pilleati to the priests he ordained, I suppose because they offered sacrifice having their heads covered with tiaras, which we otherwise call pillei.
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But he bade them call the rest of their race Capillati. In Alcuin, an advisor to the Frankish Emperor Charlemagne, wrote in a letter to Speratus, the Bishop of Lindisfarne, that he had heard reports of heathen songs and poems: Verba Dei legantur in sacerdotali convivio. Ibi decet lectorem audiri, non citharistam; sermones patrum, non carmina gentilium. Quid Hinieldus cum Christo? Non vult rex caelestis cum paganis et perditis nomine tenus regibus communionem habere. They should listen to the lector, not the cithara lyre ; to sermons of the Church Fathers, not to songs in the vernacular.
What has Ingeld to do with Christ? Our house is not wide enough to hold both. The king of heaven wants nothing to do with damned pagans holding the title of king. The Historia relates how this king became a part of the Germanic historical songs: Alboin vero ita praeclarum longe lateque nomen percrebuit, ut hactenus etiam tam apud Baioariorum gentem quamque et Saxonum, sed et alios eiusdem linguae homines eius liberalitas et gloria bellorumque felicitas et virtus in eorum carminibus celebretur Paulus Diaconus, Historia Langobardorum I: They burn him in this fashion: His possessions they divide into three parts: After that, the group of men who have cohabitated with the slave girl make of their hands a sort of paved way whereby the girl, placing her feet on the palms of their hands, mounts onto the ship.
The men came with shields and sticks. She was given a cup of intoxicating drink; she sang at taking it and drank. The interpreter told me that she in this fashion bade farewell to all her girl companions. Never before I have heard uglier songs than those of the Vikings in Slesvig in Denmark. The growling sound coming from their throats reminds me of dogs howling, only more untamed.
In his account of the heathen temple at Uppsala, Adam mentions the singing of obscene songs during the ceremony: Ceterum neniae, quae in eiusmodi ritu libationis fieri solent, multiplices et inhonestae, ideoque melius reticendae Adam of Bremen, Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum , IV: It is not clear whether Saxo is referring to a bell or a rattling instrument.
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Unde patet, quam remotum a lascivia animum habuerit, qui ne eius quidem spectator esse sustinuit. At last he left them and betook himself to Hakon, the tyrant of Denmark, because when stationed at Uppsala, at the time of the sacrifices, he was disgusted by the effeminate gestures and the clapping of the mimes on the stage, and by the unmanly clatter of the bells. Hence it is clear how far he kept his soul from lasciviousness, not even enduring to look upon it. Thus does virtue withstand wantonness.
Cuius prima specie praesentes veluti maestitia ac stupore complevit. Qui postmodum ad petulantiorem mentis statum vegetioribus lyrae sonis adducti, iocabundis corporum motibus gestiendo dolorem plausu permutare coeperunt. Postremo ad rabiem et temeritatem usque modis acrioribus incitati, captum amentia spiritum clamoribus prodiderunt. Ita animorum habitus modorum varietas inflectebat.
Igitur qui in atrio melodiae expertes constiterant, regem cum admissis dementire cognoscunt irruptaque aede furentem complexi comprehensum continere nequibant. Quippe nimio captu furoris instinctus eorum se valide complexibus eruebat; naturae siquidem eius vires etiam rabies cumulabat. Victo itaque colluctantium robore, procursum nactus, convulsis regiae foribus arreptoque ense, quattuor militum continendi eius gratia propius accedentium necem peregit.
Ad ultimum pulvinarium mole, quae undique a satellitibus congerebantur, obrutus, magno cum omnium periculo comprehenditur. And afterwards the sound of the lyre forced them to an impudent and lively state of mind, then jesting tunes which made them eager to move their bodies and they commenced to exchange anguish for applause.
Finally it enraged them to madness and rashness, so that they were seized by madness and in utter fury gave great cries.
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Thus the state of their minds was changed variously. Therefore when the music in the hall came to an end, they saw that the king was driven to madness and rage, so that they were unable to restrain him. And so overcome by the strength of the struggle, he broke their hold and darted forward, wrenched open the door and seized a sword and killed four of his warriors, and none could come near enough to restrain him.
At the end his courtiers took cushions and from every side approached, throwing them over him until at great risk they all were able to seize him. One of these is , which tells the story of the magic mill that eventually turned the sea to salt.
The first were bone or wood wind instruments. The easily-hollowed branches of the elder tree have been providing simple whistles for children and musicians alike in every land in which the tree grows since antiquity. Bone whistles and recorders have also been recovered, most commonly crafted from the legbone of a cow, deer, or from large birds the Romans had a similar tradition at one point, for the Latin term for a flute is tibia.
Bone wind instruments produce a remarkably plangent sound. The ones which have been recovered are all end-blown, with the sound being produced by an inset bone or more often wood fipple. The normal number of finger holes is three, although examples with up to seven holes has been found. Other examples have been recovered from the Swedish trading center of Birka, represented by bone flutes with two finger holes, dating to - AD. It is unclear exactly what the original instrument was.
Some people think that the Falster find represents a part of a bagpipe-like instrument, but there is no bag or other pipes associated with the pipe to make this a sure theory.
In the photograph on the right another reconstruction is shown, in which a wooden mouthpiece has been added, creating an instrument much like a hornpipe. Listen to the sound of the reconstructed Falster pipe The Coppergate excavations have unearthed yet another Viking Age woodwind instrument, a set of panpipes made from a small slab of boxwood which date from the 10th century.
Listen to the sound of the reconstructed Jorvik panpipe Another type of wind instrument would be a type of recorder made from a cow-horn. These cow horn recorders are similar in sound to the gemshorn, another recorder-like instrument, which has its mouthpiece at the wide end of the horn, which is stopped with a wooden plug see photo at right.
The earliest record of the gemshorn comes from , long after the close of the Viking Age. Listen to the sound of the reconstructed cow-horn recorder or gemshorn "Brass" Instruments The instrument many people think of when imagining Viking musical instruments is a trumpet or blast horn made from a cow horn.
There does not seem to be direct evidence for these from the Viking Age archaeological record. However, horn instruments of this type were certainly in use in Northern Europe during the Viking Age, for musicians playing blast horns are depicted on the Bayeux tapestry, which was made around , shortly after William of Normandy, a descendant of the Vikings, had landed and conquered England. Another trumpet-like instrument of the Viking Age was the lur, a type of straight trumpet made of wood. There is a considerable amount of confusion caused by the name of this instrument, since it is also used for the trumpet-like instruments of the Scandinavian Bronze Age, long before the Viking Age began see example at right.
The lur of the Viking Age is known from the Oseberg ship-burial, ca. The instrument was Horns like this may also have been used for summoning warriors or sending warnings. Listen to the sound of the wooden lur Stringed Instruments The next type of instrument is the lyre or harp. It is believed, however, that the Norse harp would not be too different from the lyre or harp found in the Sutton Hoo burial a reconstruction of this harp is shoown at the right.
Portions of 18 lyres have been found in Scandinavia and its colonies. The Swedish finds are represented by two bridge-pieces: These finds are the oldest evidence for stringed instruments in Scandinavia. Early medieval manuscripts show a variety of illustrations of this type of lyre in use. Those with seven strings or less seem usually to have been played by holding the instrument upright resting on one leg, with the left hand held behind the instrument with the fingers spread, apparently against the strings.
The right hand may hold some kind of plectrum, or in some cases the right hand appears to be strumming the strings backhanded, which would result in striking with the fingernails.
Lyres with eight strings or more seem to have been played by plucking the strings in the same way that harps are played, where both hands are plucking the strings. Priest-Dorman, The Saxon Lyre: History, Construction, and Playing Techniques.