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This introduction provides historical context for the organized expressions of hate against Zainichi Koreans. Recent aggressive street campaigns could strengthen these influences on the general public. Once the Internet became accessible to millions of people in the past two decades, such people were able to subtly instill their views on mainstream society.
As of , conservative estimates of the Korean minority population in Japan put the total at , That number includes , South Koreans and 31, stateless Koreans. Substantial numbers of Korean students also migrated to Japan seeking educational opportunities.
Both groups, however, were considered threats to the social order by the Japanese authorities, who moved vigorously to repress labor disputes as well as socialist and communist activities and the Korean Independence Movement.
The Korean population in Japan steadily increased and in , when the great Kanto earthquake devastated downtown Tokyo, an estimated 6, Koreans were killed by Japanese civilians. Photo by the author The outdoor map of Yokoami-cho Park, Tokyo. Growing numbers of Korean laborers were then mobilized to alleviate chronic labor shortages in war-industry-related manufacturing, construction, and mining sectors.
Conscripted labor migration dramatically increased the number of Koreans in Japan. Although most conscripted labor migrants returned to the Korean Peninsula following the collapse of the Japanese Empire, some ,, mainly longer-term sojourners remained, especially those with children who had been born in the country.
The increased political tension of the late s also discouraged the return of the remaining Koreans in Japan. These groups manifest their presence through street demonstrations and online video-streaming. The fact that special permanent residency is more stable than other types of permanent residency is attacked as if Zainichi Koreans have unfairly received some kind of privilege. Collective memories are always contentious depending on crisscrossing positionalities.
The historical debate between the former colonizer and the colonized has far-reaching and long-term consequences. Downtown Tokyo was burnt down twice in September and in March These recurrent conflicts continue to roil diplomatic and civilian relationships between South Korea and Japan. And Zainichi Koreans forever remain foreigners in Japan, left awkwardly in-between, even as fourth-generation Japan-born Zainichi Koreans are coming of age.
Ahiru Kugatsu: 3月 2013
In addition, the fraught relationship between Japan and the DPRK with no formal diplomatic relations adds additional twists in the plight of Zainichi Koreans. This historical limbo exacerbates hate demonstrations, as reported by Ishibashi Gaku. Anti-hate advocacy groups, in which Japanese citizens and Zainichi Koreans work together, continue to urgently require more proactive and comprehensive measures, such as the enactment of anti-discrimination laws that specify penalties for violators.
Nevertheless, without any thorough-going solution to the historical plight of Zainichi Koreans who remain in limbo, other means of hate and bigotry may appear, regardless of how law enforcement authorities handle hate demonstrations, on and off-line, as Higuchi Naoto insightfully predicts. It Demeans Japanese People. That was how they came to form vigilante groups. Photo by Narusawa Muneo.
Koike did send a eulogy last year [the first quake anniversary after taking office]. This change in policy is not unrelated to the development of the Soyokaze movement. Likewise regarding the memorial stone in Gunma.
In fact, what directly triggered this move was the meeting of eight members of Soyokaze with Koga Toshiaki, a Metropolitan Assembly member, on June 19, His association with Soyokaze is clear enough. There are numerous falsifications and distortions of sources in the book, making it unworthy of any serious expert review.
The Memorial Stone was erected with the determination never to do something like this again, precisely due to the fact that administrative bodies such as the police were complicit in spreading the groundless rumours that caused the massacres. If nothing is done, this could escalate into a ban on the memorial ceremonies in front of the Memorial Stone, and even its removal.
Governor Koike once spoke at an event organized by Soyokaze in , when she served as a member of the Lower House. This makes one feel uneasy about what will happen in the years ahead. This article appeared in the September 1, Shukan Kinyobi, pp.
Hyperlinks have been added by the translator. Arita Yoshifu, a member of the House of Councillors the upper house of the National Diet from the Democratic Party Minshinto watched part of the demonstration from beginning to end with his own eyes. He severely criticized the behavior of these absurd and therefore conspicuously hideous racists. The participants numbered approximately 20, the distance they walked about meters, and the time they spent a little more than 8 minutes.
Riding up in a microbus, they changed their starting point as if to poke fun at the few hundred citizens countering them, waited for the right moment to protest, jumped into the bus for refuge, and ran off.
They certainly resembled children full of naughty pranks, dashing off at full speed after ringing the bell at the door entrance. The spectacle of the hate demo that was carried out on 16 July in Nakahara-ku, Kawasaki City brought to the surface the limits of the Hate Speech Act, a law that contains no provisions for banning hate speech.
It is unimaginable that a demo organized by such luminaries of committed discriminationism would have any purpose other than racist agitation. On the other hand, they were extremely careful to disguise their maneuvering. The demo organizers, who had planned it last year, on 5 June, were surrounded by protesting citizens, so they were forced to cancel.
Their targets and their effectiveness were displayed in videos uploaded to YouTube. The comment area overflows with discriminatory posts. Hang in there, Japanese. It was also twisted hatred for Mr. They spread groundless rumors and bad mouth Japan all over the world. Of course, we say kill those from the enemy country. Cockroach Koreans, get the hell out.
A perversion in which victimizers justify their discrimination by taking hold of the feelings of victims i. The Hate Speech Act, merely a law of principle, is powerless in the face of professional discriminators who make money from discrimination.
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What we need next is a law that bans racial discrimination itself and provisions for local government enforcement. This article originally appeared in Shukan Kinyobi, September 1, Cultural Trauma, Memory, and Identity in Japan. The post-war construction of a colonial rule.
Identities, nation, and gender. Slipping Racism into the Mainstream: A Theory of Information Laundering. Communication Theory 22 4: The Asia Pacific Journal: Japan Focus 6 11 Mun, Gyung-su. The post-war period for Zainichi Koreans. Kurein Crane , pp.