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July 15, Accepted: October 17, Ref: Their age ranged between 18 to 50 years. Their education was at least gradation and above. They belong to middle and high socio-economic status. Results indicated highly significant relationship between marital adjustment, depression and stress.
The findings of the results also show that working married women have to face more problems in their married life as compared to non-working married women.
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The results further show that highly educated working and non-working married women can perform well in their married life and they are free from depression as compared to educated working and non-working married women. It involves emotional and legal commitment that is quite important in any adult life. Moreover, selecting a partner and entering into a marital contract is considered both maturational milestone and personal achievement. People marry for many reasons, like; love, happiness, companionship, and the desire to have children, physical attraction, or desire to escape from an unhappy situation .
Marriage is a commitment with love and responsibility for peace, happiness and development of strong family relationships. All the marriages are aimed at happiness in one or another way.
Most couples marry filled up with expectations. Some of the expectations will be realistic while others unrealistic. This is due to the complex nature of marriage and each individual is as complex as a universe.
Therefore, in marriage two universes close together . Marital adjustment calls for maturity that accepts and understands growth and development in the spouse. If this growth is not experienced and realized fully, death in marital relationship is inevitable. A relationship between couples is not instantaneous rather a slow progress. There is a list of six areas of marital adjustment, which is defined by the psychologist, such as, religion, social life, mutual friends, in laws, money and sex .
Another psychologist defines ten areas of marital adjustment, i. A study on marriage and marital adjustment in USA presents social activities and recreation, training and disciplining of children, religion, in law relationship, financial matters, sexual relationship, communication, mutual trust and companionship as the areas of marital adjustment . Comprehensive study of husbands and wives investigated some of the factors that contributed to marital satisfaction. Some of their findings revealed existing social, cultural, educational level the greater satisfaction.
Occupation and income, which are often thought to be associated with levels of satisfaction, have no relationship with it. The number of children too affects marital satisfaction . There is evidence that the pressures of managing multiple roles in women are the greatest, and the psychological benefits of employment are the least, under conditions of heavy family responsibilities that is, when young children are at home .
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But beyond specific factors such as these, what is important to marital satisfaction over the course of marriage is the ability of partner to adjust to a variety of changes and to cope with a number of stresses. Marital role can be defined as set of attitudes and behaviors a spouse is expired to demonstrate in the content of the marriage relationship .
A marital role comprises cultural expectations associated with the husband or with a wife. A husband is expected to provide used is considered as head of family while wife is expected to make home and companion, or the wife may be expected to be the strong one, upon whom the husband can rely . Perhaps half of the adults suffering from severe stress blame the deteriorating relationships on their spouse. Looking at the growing rate of divorces, court cases for alimony, physical abuses and single parents; it does seem as if handling a relationship can be a tricky and often taxing issue.
The possible causes can be endless. More often than not, stress arising from marital relationships is manifested in chronic disorders such as depression, insomnia and hypertension. Since a relationship depends on the nature of the persons involved, it helps to seek the middle path when the inherent individual differences surface. Depression in a spouse is an issue that most couples will face at some point in their marriage.
Depression is a normal and natural response to loss or grief, whether a death, separation from a loved one, job loss, loss of physical health, or relocation. Marital distress and relationship conflict also contribute to depression. Symptoms of depression include feelings of sadness, hopelessness, helplessness, anxiety, irritability, agitation, fatigue, low energy, and a reduced activity level are common, and there is also withdrawal from social contact and loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities, including sex.
There may be changes in appetite, weight or sleep patterns, memory problems or difficulty concentrating. Often there are feelings of worthlessness or inadequacy and a lowered sense of self-esteem. Married women have higher rates of depression than unmarried women, but the reverse is true for men. Marriage seems to confer a greater protective advantage on men than on women . Marital adjustment and depression are strongly related.
In a research, collected data on women and men and then re-interviewed them up to 1 year later. During this a number of participants separated from or divorced their spouses though the majority reported stable marriages. It can be seen that the phenomenon of marital adjustment that it is given a priority in all cultures, as marriage is one of the most important commitment of an individual makes in his or her life. A good marriage not only produces a satisfied life but it also generates a sense of well-being.
Marital adjustment has been related to personality, job and home stresses, mental illness, depression, education, sex role attitude, happiness and success in life. However in Pakistan the phenomenon of marital adjustment and its related variables have not been given much attention.
Recently a few studies have been done on the topic of marital adjustment. In them marital adjustment has been studied with its relationship to depression among working and non-working women, male and female initiation of psychotherapy female education level. The present study is an attempt to investigate marital adjustment, stress and depression among working and non-working married women . Working women may be prone to depression because they bear the double burden of housework and a job outside the home.
Because they have to work in two environments, one is the office environment and the other is home environment. Both are vastly different from one to another.
Stress arising from marital relationships is manifested in chronic disorders such as depression, insomnia and hypertension. Pakistan being an Islamic country with traditional society, women are expected to stay home and do house work. Their doing job comes in conflict with the values that may cause marital maladjustment. The purpose of this study is in Pakistani context the phenomenon of marital adjustment and its related variables i.
This research would be so helpful in knowing the difficulties faced by Pakistani working and non-working women just to spend a simple married life. Because our society is man-oriented society, women have to face all problems.
If they are working they are supposed to perform all duties at office as well as at home. Working women were doctors, lectures and bankers. Convenient random sampling was used for this study.
Staff View: Earnings in 1983 of married-couple families, by characteristics of husbands and wives.
Instruments Beck depression inventory BDI: The BDI is a self-report measure of depression, consisting of 21 items that assess the severity of affective, behavioral, cognitive, and somatic symptoms of depression. Each item is scored on a 3-point scale . An internal consistency coefficient of 0.
In present study BDI-Urdu version was used to measure depression. It comprised of 20 items as its one item having sexual connotation was dropped, so score range of BDI-U is and construct validity is 0. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale DAS  is a self-report questionnaire that provides global wideness of marital distress. It consists of 27 items Urdu. Factors analysis of DAS has resulted in form components of adjustment: It is easy to administer and has high reliability overtime and well established norms.
It gives subjective impressions regarding the degree of satisfaction. The scale was translated and adapted for Pakistani population by Pakistani psychologist . The translated version of scale has reliability of 0. In translated item No. However, for the present study only one part of item No. Stress scale is developed for the purpose of the current study; items that measured the construct of general stress were derived from the original item pool of 87 she had developed.
Items were deriving by five judges, who were asked to select only those items that measured general stress . Only those items were selected that were marked by three or more than three judges i. Items that were removed are 2, 9, 13, 15, 21, 23, 26, 27, 28, 34, 35, 36, 38, 39, 41, 44, 45, 50, 51, 54, 60, 67, 68, 69, 73, 74, 76, 80, 83, 84, 85, and Another section was also added in the scale in which information regarding the occurrence of any stressful event in the past few months, the nature of the event and time of its occurrence was asked.
So that relationship between stress and marital adjustment was determined. Validity of Measures Inter correlation among scores of all the two scales i. It indicates that if depression is high in married women then their married life will be suffered. Our hypothesis regarding this relationship is supported, which implies that higher the depression lower would be the marital adjustment. The results further show that non-working married women also have many problems like working married women.
This findings do not support our hypotheses that non-working married women are martially better adjust than working married women. The results indicate that working and non-working married women both have to face depression in their married life. Findings do not support our hypotheses that working married women have to face more depression as compared to the non-working married women.
The results show that working married women are more under stress. Because they have to work in two environments, one is home environment and other in office. So they feel more stress because of too much burden of work as compared to non-working married women. This findings support our hypotheses that working married women are more under stress than non-working married women.