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The crane operator and the victim were working together removing pins that secured the foot center section to the base boom section. The supervisor summoned a coworker who contacted and company managers immediately. A hydraulic crane located nearby was brought to the site and used to lift the boom off of the victim. Approximately 5 minutes after receiving the call, emergency medical services EMS personnel arrived and extricated the victim.
They attempted resuscitation but were unsuccessful. The victim was transported to the hospital where he was pronounced dead about 45 minutes after the incident.
Introduction On January 30, , a year-old male Hispanic carpenter helper the victim was fatally injured while assisting in disassembling a truck-mounted crane boom at a bridge construction site.
The incident site and the crane were examined. On the day of the incident, the company had eight employees on the bridge construction site, two of whom were directly involved in the disassembly process. His country of origin was Mexico and he spoke Spanish.
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His attendance was documented. The victim was not provided with training that specifically addressed hazards associated with working near cranes. There were no records that documented that the victim had received any training sessions in Spanish. Equipment The truck-mounted lattice boom crane used at the time of the incident was a model and was purchased in used condition by the employer in The crane had been inspected monthly by company employees and inspections were documented.
No problems with the crane were identified. An abbreviated visual inspection of the crane conducted by the NCOSHA compliance officer on January 30, , did not reveal any apparent mechanical defects.
Safety Program and Training The company had a safety and health training program which was written in English. According to the full-time safety manager, portions of the safety program were translated as needed into Spanish by another full-time employee in the safety office who was bilingual.
Documents such as ladder safety, scaffolding safety, and fall protection were available in Spanish. Safety meetings called safety huddles by the company were routinely held each morning before work, but a safety huddle was not held on the day of the incident because the supervisor who conducted them arrived to work late due to an off-site appointment. These meetings were conducted in English. The crane operator involved in this incident had worked for the company for 6 years and spoke English.
He received crane operator certification from the National Commission for the Certification of Crane Operators in This type of certification requires extensive class room training and supervised crane operation. The company had a team of two workers who ordinarily conducted crane boom disassembly, but one of these workers was occupied with another crane on the day of the incident, and the other worker had not arrived on the jobsite when disassembly began.
The crane operator involved in the incident had trained under them. Back to Top Investigation The incident site was a bridge overpass, part of a larger state-funded highway construction project that began August 4, , and was to be completed by July 1, A truck-mounted crane with an foot lattice boom Photo1 had been used to set approximately 20 girders which spanned the southbound lanes of the bridge. The next task, unloading and placing concrete decking over the girders, required a longer boom.
The company had a foot and a foot lattice boom section lying on the ground next to the truck mounted crane. These sections were to be assembled and then added to the existing foot boom which was comprised of a foot end boom section, foot center section, and a foot lower boom section. The boom on the truck-mounted crane was to be disassembled between the foot center section and the foot lower boom section. After the foot section was inserted, the overall boom length was to be feet.
This photograph illustrates the truck-mounted lattice boom crane that was involved in the incident Photograph courtesy of the NCOSHA Work began at about 7 a. The crew was told that a truck carrying concrete bridge panel decking was on its way to the site and the decking needed to be offloaded and placed on the bridge that afternoon. After the boom section was assembled, the site superintendent walked about feet away and helped unload materials for the next phase of the job.
The crane operator was left in charge of the crane assembly and disassembly, and he asked the victim to help him disassemble the boom so that they could insert the foot section.
The crane operator reported that he had some experience in his training with disassembly and assembly of booms, as it had been covered briefly in his crane operator classes. The crane operator began the process of disassembly so that they would be ready when the concrete decking arrived. The crane operator lowered the hook block assembly to the ground and placed it to the left west side of the crane. He then lowered the foot boom, resting the peak of the end boom section on the ground Photo 2 -peak is marked A.
The live mast was then lowered and the cables and pendants were slackened.
The foot center section was about four feet off of the ground. The crane operator asked the victim to help him remove the pins that secured the foot center section to the foot lower boom section.
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There were four pins securing the center section to the lower boom section, two upper and two lower pins.
Each pin was about seven inches long, two inches in diameter, tapered on one end, and secured with a cotter pin. The crane operator went under the boom and knocked out the first lower pin easily. He tried to knock out the second lower pin, but it would not budge.
The victim picked up the pin that had landed on the ground on the west side of the lattice boom and indicated with hand motions that he could use it as a punch to drive out the second bottom pin. The crane operator moved from under the boom and reached through the lattice and pounded on the pin held by the victim as the victim, located under the boom, held the first pin against the second bottom pin.
The crane operator reported that he told the victim to move as the boom could fall, and the victim moved from the center section to underneath the lower boom section. After the crane operator pounded on the pin about four more times with a sledge hammer, the second bottom pin came out.
It was approximately 8: This photograph illustrates a close up of the location where the victim was struck by the boom. The pin is marked with a circle and was one of two lower pins removed.
The two lower pins had been replaced during rescue efforts. An insert shows a larger illustration of the pin. Within about 5 minutes, a hydraulic crane located nearby was positioned next to the lattice boom.
The crane operator rigged a strap to the lattice boom, connected it to the hook of the hydraulic crane, and lifted the boom off the victim Photo 4. The two pins were driven back into place to secure the boom sections. This photograph illustrates the truck-mounted lattice boom crane A that was involved in the incident. It was taken after the hydraulic crane B had been used to lift the boom section off the victim and both lower pins had been replaced.
The victim was transported to the hospital at 9: At other times, if the helper crane was not available, they the crane operator and one of the team of two workers with more experience in disassembly would use the live mast as a hoist and connect a hook from the live mast to a nylon strap wrapped around the lower boom section of the boom.
Tension on the hoist cable would support the boom. The trainer for crane operators employed by the company agreed that this was the practice, provided that the crane boom was 80 feet or shorter. Supervisors should ensure that safety measures specified in the manual are followed and the procedures are reviewed with all involved workers before each assembly and disassembly.
The above warning is provided as an example of the information contained in the operators manual for the crane used in this incident and is only a small part of the section on disassembly. Use proper blocking methods to adequately support crane components during these operations.
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Do not block between the support members, as this may cause damage to the boom section. Always check to ensure boom pendants boom suspension cables or lines are properly located before removing a connecting pin. The boom pendant should be between the pin and the crane body so that it supports the boom section closest to the crane body.
When removing pins, block or support the removing boom sections s to prevent their collapse. Employers should ensure that all workers assigned to disassemble or assist in disassembling cranes are trained on correct procedures, using a language and literacy level that workers can understand, so that they can recognize the hazards of improper disassembly sequences. The victim was not specifically trained in safety hazards associated with disassembling booms in English or Spanish, and had never helped disassemble a crane boom before.
The crane operator spoke English and, although a trained and certified crane operator, had never performed boom disassembly procedures as the lead worker before. He reported that there was a sense of urgency to get the crane ready for the tasks at hand, and that he forgot about making sure that the boom was supported.
Just before the incident occurred, he motioned to the victim to move as the boom could fall on him, but the victim moved from under the center section to under the lower boom section. This incident underscores the importance of ensuring that all members of the crew have a basic understanding of the correct procedures involved in hazardous operations such as assembling or disassembling cranes.
Additionally, if the victim had fully appreciated the potential for uncontrolled movement, he may have positioned himself to the side of the boom rather than underneath, minimizing the danger of being struck by falling boom sections. The training should reiterate that boom sections need to be supported during disassembly, that standing anywhere near a crane during disassembly is hazardous, and that pins used to hold boom sections together are always to be removed while standing outside the boom, never under it.
Training should emphasize that workers must stand to the side and reach through the lattice to remove the pins. Employers are required to follow Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA standards which mandate safety training and education in the recognition and avoidance of unsafe conditions, and the regulations applicable to the work environment to control or eliminate any hazards or other exposure to illness and injury 29CFR The Alert contains a tear-out sheet that summarizes safety precautions for operators of mobile cranes and for those who work on or around mobile cranes.
Including the Alert in jobsite training materials and posting the tear-out sheet at the worksite may serve as an additional means of communicating safe work procedures to workers. Fatality case reports provide another valuable source for use in safety training programs and can be accessed by using the NIOSH Website www.
Hispanic Employers and Workers web page to assist employers with a Spanish-speaking workforce in learning more about workplace rights and responsibilities, identifying Spanish-language outreach and training resources, and learning how to work cooperatively with OSHA. These materials are available at https: Information provided can be used by employers who are developing or improving safety and training programs for their Spanish speaking employees.
Employers should ensure that prework safety meetings are conducted each day to discuss the work to be performed, identify the potential safety hazards, and implement safe work procedures to control the hazards. On the day of the incident a safety huddle was not held. It is not possible to know if such a safety talk that morning would have focused on the specific hazards associated with boom disassembly.
However, safety huddles, conducted in a language and at a literacy level that all workers could understand, could be used as an opportunity to discuss the work to be done and the associated hazards inherent to such work.