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Seidl studied at the Leipzig Conservatory from October At Bayreuth, Seidl assisted in the creation of the first copy of the score of Das Ring des Nibelungen. As a consequence, Seidl was at the first Bayreuth Festival in the Summer of Seidl conducted in Leipzig from , to be succeeded by his Hungarian contemporary, the young Artur Nikisch The conducting reputation of Seidl was further consolidated during this tour.
In , Seidl was appointed as successor to Leopold Damrosch, who had died as conductor of the German Repertoire at the Metropolitan Opera. Also, during the Summers, beginning in , Seidl conducted at the Bayreuth Festival. As a consequence, the Philharmonic Society of New York experienced new financial prosperity.
Also in , Anton Seidl organized a symphony orchestra, the Seidl Orchestra so named, that many thought would become a permanent New York feature, given the financial backing of the many Seidl admirers. The conducting style of Seidl is said to have been characterized by free tempi and interpretation, even of established classics, such as Beethoven, which divided listeners and critics of the era. Walter Damrosch, as well as studying under his father, attended the Dresden Conservatory, where he studied with Wilhelm Albert Rischbieter and Felix Draeseke The Damrosch family emigrated to the U.
Walter began conducting both oratorio society and concerts under his father, Leopold who became conductor of the German repertoire at the Metropolitan Opera in At that time, Walter Damrosch was an assistant conductor, and advanced to the German repertoire under Seidl when Leopold Damrosch died in At the MET, Walter Damrosch was respected in his conducting of Wagner, although contemporary critics wrote that he did not reach the heights of contemporaries such as Hertz, and well short of the very different approaches of Mahler or Toscanini.
Walter Damrosch was also a successful symphonic conductor. Walter Damrosch had a successful relationship with Andrew Carnegie which resulted in Carnegie funding of the Symphony Society, and the funding of the construction of Carnegie Hall, opened in During the s, Damrosch progressively conducted symphony concerts less and less, and beginning , became Music Director for NBC radio.
At NBC, Damrosch lead a successful classical music appreciation program, directed at youths, and which continued until These works are generally forgotten today. In , Van de Stucken went to Antwerp with his parents. He therefore took the family back to Antwerp. There, Frank Van der Stucken Jr. Van der Stucken learned conducting by the traditional European method of being a regional kapellmeister, first at the Stadttheater Breslau, Prussia now Wroclaw, Poland in In about , Frank Van der Stucken moved to New York where he succeeded Leopold Damrosch as conductor of the Arion Society a choral and orchestral society from Van der Stucken gave concerts with the Arion Society championing music of American composers.
Van der Stucken was appointed the first conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra serving from From about to about , he conducted frequently at the Metropolitan Opera. Van der Stucken also continued his Cincinnati connection for many years.
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He directed the Cincinnati May Festival, from and in earlier years, the Festival was only every second year. Frank van der Stucken returned for the Cincinnati festivals from Europe. He had relocated to Germany in In the late s, Hertz entered the newly formed Raff Konservatorium in Frankfurt, studying piano and composition under Anton Urspruch In , Alfred Hertz began the usual path in Germany for learning conducting, by entering a regional theater, the Hoftheatre of the small town of Altenberg, Germany, 30 km south of Dresden.
Hertz stayed in Altenberg for three seasons, , before going to the Stadttheater of Barmen-Elberfeld renamed Wuppertal after , near Stuttgart during Hertz then went to the much larger city of Breslau, km east of Dresden Breslau now being in Poland, with the name of Wroclaw. From , Hertz conducted at the Stadttheater Breslau where Frank Van der Stucken had also conducted during the season. In , Alfred Hertz made the large jump to the Metropolitan Opera, where he became the principal conductor of the Germany repertory, succeeding Walter Damrosch.
Hertz was well received in New York, although some critics thought his orchestra drowned out many of the singers. For a time, all German opera houses would not engage Hertz because of this. During his tenure at the Metropolitan Opera, Hertz toured the U. Hertz left the Metropolitan opera at the end of the season, and went to Los Angeles that summer of to conduct at the Panama Exposition. Hertz then returned to Germany for the season, where he conducted, among others, the Berlin Philharmonic which also led to the famous Parsifal recording.
In , when the U. Alfred Hertz died in San Francisco on April 17, He graduated in with distinction. The next year, in , Toscanini was traveling with a contract orchestra in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
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In a famous incident, the local conductor, Leopoldo Miguez had been rejected by the singers, and after several unsuccessful substitutes, Toscanini, the chorus master took over the performance of Aida on June 30, Following his South American successes, Toscanini conducted in Italy, but also continued playing the cello.
Toscanini devoted seven seasons to La Scala, and Toscanini then accepted a similar post with the Metropolitan Opera in the season. In New York, Toscanini was an instant favorite, and remained until the end of the season.
In , Toscanini returned to support Italy during World War 1. Following the war, in , Toscanini toured the U. In the early s, Toscanini became disillusioned with Mussolini and with fascism and repeatedly refused to conduct the Fascist anthem Giovinezza.
At a memorial concert for Giuseppe Martucci in May, Toscanini was attacked by fascist blackshirts when he again refused to conduct Giovinezza. Toscanini then abandoned Italy. Toscanini was the first non-German conductor at Bayreuth at the and festivals. In , Toscanini accepted the Bronislaw Huberman invitation to conduct the inaugural concert of the Palestine Symphony What more can be said or written about Toscanini, certainly the most famous conductor of the Twentieth Century?
His precision, dedication to perfection, his tantrums another aspect of perfection , his dedication to the score although he, too, made changes , his memory and above all, his genius. The reputation that his later performances, rather than slowing, as did other conductors late in their careers, such as Klemperer, Walter, Weingartner, instead sped up. Some claimed they became too hard-driven. Although not always true, there is in my view some truth in this opinion.
His Philharmonic recording of the Beethoven Symphony no 7 remains, for me, unsurpassed. In the s in Vienna, Bodanzky studied violin and composition with the young Alexander Zemlinsky , later known for his conducting and compositions. Bodanzky graduated from the Vienna Conservatory in Beginning in the season, Bodanzky played in the first violin section of the Vienna Opera Bodanzky conducted opera and light opera in Paris, Russia, and Germany.
In the seasons, Artur Bodanzky was conductor at the Neues Deutsches Landestheater in Prague, where Otto Klemperer also conducted from Bodanzky came to the U.
Bodanzky also became conductor of the Society of Friends of Music which post he held Bodanzky became a U. At the end of the season, Bodanzky resigned from the Metropolitan Opera, and in the next season, Joseph Rosenstock was appointed as principal conductor of the German repertoire.
This selection of Rosenstock, who had been conductor at the Stadtsoper, Wiesbaden 35 proved unsuccessful, and Bodanzky was retained again in the season, where he remained until his death in Bodanzky was noted for the rapid tempi of his conducting, including of the music of Wagner.
He was also criticized for the number of cuts he made to scores, even in an era that extensive cuts to operas was the norm. Arthur Bodanzky suffered a heart attack on October 28, , and died one month later on November 23, at the beginning of his twenty-fourth season at the Metropolitan Opera.
Serafin studied violin at the Milan Conservatory. He played in the La Scala orchestra under Toscanini, beginning in about Serafin made his conducting debut at Ferrara, Italy in In the early s, Serafin also began conducting at La Scala.
His abilities were such that when Toscanini departed for the Metropolitan Opera in , Serafin increased his conducting, and was named Music Director, beginning in the season.
Serafin continued in this position until except when La Scala was closed because of World War 1. La Scala was then again closed In , Serafin joined the conducting staff at the MET in the Italian repertoire for ten seasons until the end of Serafin is said to be one of the first who realized the great talent of Maria Callas, and cultivated it.
Callas said that it was Serafin, who conducted her Italian debut, who guided her to become a prima donna Tullio Serafin died in Rome in February 2, , just short of his ninetieth birthday. Panizza studied at the Milan Conservatory. Panizza conducted at La Scala, Milan from about , and then following the reopening Panizza shared the conducting duties with Toscanini following the reopening until Toscanini left for the New York Philharmonic in Panizza, continued at La Scala until the end of the season.
Beginning in the season, he took over responsibilities as principal conductor of the Italian repertoire from Tullio Serafin. Panizza remained at the MET until the end of the season, when he returned to Italy following the fall of Mussolini.
Panizza died in Milan, Italy November 27, Landauer in Vienna, Austria on February 4, Leinsdorf found the Metropolitan Opera progressively more frustrating, with the few rehearsals and the negative atmosphere of opera house politics.
In in a controversial selection process in which candidates George Szell and Vladimir Golschmann were turned down 54, Erich Leinsdorf was named Music Director of the Cleveland Orchestra.