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A lot of [previous] civil rights [legislation] was about making the South behave and taking the teeth from George Wallace This came right to the neighborhoods across the country. This was civil rights getting personal. People with disabilities and families with children were added to the list of protected classes by the Fair Housing Amendments Act of ; gender was added in see below.
Discrimination against a person in the terms, conditions or privilege of the sale or rental of a dwelling.
Advertising the sale or rental of a dwelling indicating preference of discrimination based on race, color, religion or national origin amended by Congress as part of the Housing and Community Development Act of to include sex  and, as of , people with disabilities and families with children.
Subsequent legislative and judicial changes[ edit ] In Congress voted to weaken the ability of plaintiffs to prosecute cases of discriminatory treatment in housing. Additionally, the amendment added people with disabilities and families with children to the classes covered by the Act.
In the early s, in Trouillon v. Previous litigation under the Act had largely been limited to discrimination in buying or renting housing. Although he ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, Judge Davis nevertheless disputed the allegations of discrimination.
Civil Rights Act of 1968 - Wikipedia
The city "did not act in bad faith or fraudulently", Davis wrote. Landlords are not required by law to rent to any tenant who applies for a property. Landlords can lawfully discriminate against tenants with bad credit histories or low incomes, and except in some areas do not have to rent to tenants who will be receiving Section 8 vouchers.
Landlords must be consistent in the screening, treat tenants who are inside and outside the protected classes in the same manner, and should document any legitimate business reason for not renting to a prospective tenant. As of , no federal protection against discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity is provided, but these protections do exist in some localities. Later, the disabled and families with children were added to this list. Department of Housing and Urban Development is charged with administering and enforcing this law.
Racial steering Social steering is a form of housing discrimination that involves housing authorities, real estate companies and even local governments steering certain groups of people, often minorities, into certain areas of a city.
Some types of housing projects can be taken as examples of steering. Often housing projects concentrate poor minorities into a few buildings or blocks, concentrating the population and isolating them from most of the city. Often the areas where the steering tends to concentrate certain groups of people lack city resources that other parts of the city may have.
For example, in Los Angeles , the " ghetto " is not wired into key information circuits like the rest of the city such as education and cultural media. In the s, governments across America took initiatives to destroy so-called slums and ghettos of the cities, and put up housing projects in place. These multistory, high-density projects were where whites began to push blacks who were dislocated by destruction of slums, also heavily avoided by the white population. Despite the Fair Housing Act, which included cases like Gautreaux and Shannon which prohibited placing projects exclusively in black neighborhoods, the trend did not end.
Often the people living in a neighborhood may not be so friendly to people moving in that are different from them. For example, in an interracial couple moved into an all-white neighborhood in Philadelphia. Upon arrival there was an angry mob waving torches and protesting the arrival of a person of color. Before the Fair Housing Act many minorities were met with blatantly racist objects of deterrence such as signs in the neighborhood or at real estate companies explicitly saying they do not accept certain minorities.
White testers were shown many more properties—around 36—while the African American testers only got to see on average 7. Illinois Attorney General case. Another Detroit study showed that whites were rarely shown homes in non-white neighborhoods unless they asked to see them. There are numerous cases and studies done that show the more subtle end of racial and social steering after the Fair Housing Act.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. April Main article: Redlining Redlining is related to steering because it is denying financial support and services to neighborhoods based on race, ethnicity, or economic status. Originating in the New Deal , this procedure was a protocol for deciding where federal, state and city funds would go for financial services.
Affluent middle- and upper-middle-class white areas were outlined in green on a map, meaning that financial services were clear to be rendered and these areas were desirable for investment. Racial areas, specifically African-American neighborhoods, were outlined in red, meaning they were undesirable neighborhood whose denizens were poor and racially mixed.
These maps were used by banking institutions to construct guidelines for lending money. As a consequence, many of these redlined areas, which were also typically located in urban environments as whites tended to move out to the suburbs of America, experienced deterioration on a rapid scale.
Since these areas have been neglected and redlined and cannot receive funds from banks to revitalize, they cannot attract businesses, which perpetuates the cycle of poverty. The poverty often leads to crime, and neighborhoods become further neglected because they continue to be unattractive to outside investment, and continue to be redlined by banks.
Thus private banks and financial institutions as well as the U. Redlining is still practiced today on a more subtle level. Instead of having official maps circulated to institutions, which is illegal, the public domain may tend to ignore poor neighborhoods by denying basic public services.
Segregation Index[ edit ] Nancy A. Denton and Douglass S. Massey devised a segregation index to measure the degree of segregation of African-Americans and whites according to income levels. Their objective was to show that the discrimination of African Americans when it comes to housing was not related to income level, which many thought to be true.
Many have argued that continuing segregation is due to African Americans generally making less money, which means they cannot afford to live in the same neighborhoods as affluent whites.
But as the segregation index by Denton and Massey showed, blacks still remained highly segregated from whites no matter what the income level was. This trend was common throughout most major metropolitan areas, especially prevalent in the northern cities. It should be noted that Denton and Massey also surveyed Hispanics and Asians, and found on average the indices to be 64 which meant the poorest Hispanics and Asians were still less segregated than the most affluent blacks.
Leslie Carr notes that in , 74 percent of whites live in suburbs, while most African Americans and Hispanics live in urban areas, and that African Americans were a majority population in 14 cities with populations over , Legislation[ edit ] Civil Rights Act of This is the law that declared all people born in the United States are legally citizens.
2 Indiana cities honoring victim of 1968 racial killing | The Seattle Times
This means they could rent, hold, sell and buy property. This law was meant to help former slaves, and those who refused to grant these new rights to slaves were guilty and punishable under law.
Section and of the New York State Property Law Further extends the protection to include dwellings with children and mobile home parks. This is meant to protect renters and sellers from discriminating based on number of children in a family.
Currently the Fair Housing Act protects against discrimination of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status, and disability. The law applies to all types of housing, rental homes , apartments, condos and houses. The only exception to the act is when an owner of a small rental building lives in the same building he lets.
Since he owns the building and also resides there, he can decide who lives there. Sexual orientation and gender identity[ edit ] Sexual orientation and gender identity are not protected under the Fair Housing Act; federal law in general does not protect gays and lesbians or other sexual minorities transgender or transsexual against discrimination in private housing.
There are twenty two states that have passed laws prohibiting discrimination in housing based on sexual orientation and gender identity.
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The states that have passed fair housing laws in regards to both sexual orientation and gender identity are: In addition to the states above, the following three states prohibit discrimination in housing based on sexual orientation only: New Hampshire, New York and Wisconsin. Violations of the Fair Housing Act[ edit ] There are an estimated 2 million cases of housing discrimination each year according to HUD.
The National Fair Housing Alliance, the largest fair housing non-profit in the country, estimates that number to be closer to 4 million per year, excluding instances of discrimination due to disability or familial status.
However, between the years of and only 17 of these went to court nationwide. Redlining is still a major problem despite the legislation passed making it illegal. Studies and investigations have shown that minorities who apply for mortgages are rejected 3 times as much as Caucasians. According to one Federal Reserve Board study, among higher income applicants, the denial rates were as follows: Housing advocates Elizabeth Julian and Michael Daniel state: These conditions include inferior city-provided facilities and services, little or no new or newer residential housing, large numbers of seriously substandard structures, noxious environmental conditions, substandard or completely absent neighborhood service facilities, high crime rates, inadequate access to job centers, and little or no investment of new capital in the area by public and private entities.
Thus, this discrimination goes beyond being poor because white housing projects receive more attention and public investment, making housing discrimination overall a racial problem. Although several legal measures have been taken to protect all kinds of people against housing discrimination in the U. Hate crimes provisions[ edit ] Main article: Persons violating this law face a fine or imprisonment of up to one year, or both.
If bodily injury results or if such acts of intimidation involve the use of firearms, explosives or fire, individuals can receive prison terms of up to 10 years, while crimes involving kidnapping, sexual assault, or murder can be punishable by life in prison or the death penalty.
Hate Crimes Prevention Act.