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The GPP was based on the "accumulation of forces in silence": There they would build a grassroots peasant support base in preparation for renewed rural guerrilla warfare. In the view of the young orthodox Marxist intellectuals, such as Jaime Wheelock , economic development had turned Nicaragua into a nation of factory workers and wage-earning farm laborers.
Shortly after, a third faction arose within the FSLN. The "Insurrectional Tendency", also known as the "Third Way" or Terceristas, led by Daniel Ortega , his brother Humberto Ortega , and Mexican-born Victor Tirado Lopez, was more pragmatic and called for tactical, temporary alliances with non-communists, including the right-wing opposition, in a popular front against the Somoza regime.
The Terceristas carried out attacks in early February in several Nicaraguan cities. The National Guard responded by further increasing repression and using force to contain and intimidate all government opposition.
The nationwide strike that paralyzed the country for ten days weakened the private enterprises and most of them decided to suspend their participation in less than two weeks. Meanwhile, Somoza asserted his intention to stay in power until the end of his presidential term in The United States government showed its displeasure with Somoza by suspending all military assistance to the regime, but continued to approve economic assistance to the country for humanitarian reasons.
Armed youths took over the highland city of Matagalpa. Large numbers of semi-armed civilians joined the revolt and put the Guard garrisons of the latter four cities under siege. The September Insurrection of was subdued at the cost of several thousand, mostly civilian, casualties.
Sotelo, later to become Ambassador to the U. This strengthened the revolutionary organizations as tens of thousands of youths joined the FSLN and the fight against Somoza.
A direct consequence of the spread of the armed struggle in Nicaragua was the official reunification of the FSLN that took place on 7 March By mid-April , five guerrilla fronts opened under the joint command of the FSLN, including an internal front in the capital city Managua.
Young guerrilla cadres and the National Guardsmen were clashing almost daily in cities throughout the country. Urban insurrection was the crucial element because the FSLN could never hope to achieve simple superiority in men and firepower over the National Guard. On June 16, the formation of a provisional Nicaraguan government in exile, consisting of a five-member Junta of National Reconstruction , was announced and organized in Costa Rica. The war left approximately 30,, dead and , Nicaraguans in exile.
The five-member junta entered the Nicaraguan capital the next day and assumed power, reiterating its pledge to work for political pluralism, a mixed economic system, and a nonaligned foreign policy. Only three votes were needed to pass law. However, the Council of State only gave political parties twelve of forty-seven seats; the rest of the seats were given to Sandinista mass-organizations. Nevertheless, as of the State of Emergency, opposition parties were no longer given representation in the council.
The Sandinista-controlled mass organizations were extremely influential over civil society and saw their power and popularity peak in the mids. Over , Nicaraguans participated as literacy teachers. One of the stated aims of the literacy campaign was to create a literate electorate which would be able to make informed choices at the promised elections.
These activities led critics of the Sandinistas to argue that the CDS was a system of local spy networks for the government used to stifle political dissent, and the CDS did hold limited powers—such as the ability to suspend privileges such as driver licenses and passports—if locals refused to cooperate with the new government.
After the initiation of heavier U. Violeta Chamorro and Alfonso Robelo resigned from the governing junta in , and rumours began that members of the Ortega junta would consolidate power amongst themselves. Armed opposition to the Sandinista Government eventually divided into two main groups: Although independent and often at conflict with each other, these guerrilla bands—along with several others—all became generally known as "Contras" short for "contrarrevolucionarios", en.
They conducted attacks on economic, military, and civilian targets. During the Contra war, the Sandinistas arrested suspected members of the Contra militias and censored publications they accused of collaborating with the enemy i.
They argued that this was a response to attacks by counter-revolutionary forces. Under the new "Law for the Maintenance of Order and Public Security" the "Tribunales Populares Anti-Somozistas" allowed for the indefinite holding of suspected counter-revolutionaries without trial.
¿Qué es la Teología de la Liberación?: Génesis y consolidación :: Opinión :: Religión Digital
The State of Emergency, however, most notably affected rights and guarantees contained in the "Statute on Rights and Guarantees of Nicaraguans". In total, twenty-four programs were cancelled. There were many instances where rallies of opposition parties were physically broken up by Sandinsta youth or pro-Sandinista mobs.
James Wheelock justified the actions of the Directorate by saying " We are annulling the license of the false prophets and the oligarchs to attack the revolution.
In December special courts called "Tribunales Especiales" were established to speed up the processing of 7,, National Guard prisoners. These courts operated through relaxed rules of evidence and due process and were often staffed by law students and inexperienced lawyers.
However, the decisions of the "Tribunales Especiales" were subject to appeal in regular courts. Many of the National Guard prisoners were released immediately due to lack of evidence. Others were pardoned or released by decree. By only 2, remained in custody and only 39 were still being held in when they were released under the Esquipulas II agreement. A new regulation also forced any organization outside of the government to first submit any statement it wanted to make public to the censorship bureau for prior approval.
Contras[ edit ] Main articles: This campaign included attacks on schools, health centers and the majority of the rural population that was sympathetic to the Sandinistas. Widespread murder, rape, and torture were also used as tools to destabilize the government and to "terrorize" the population into collaborating with the Contras.
Throughout this campaign, the Contras received military and financial support from the CIA and the Reagan Administration. Contra supporters have often tried to downplay these violations, or countered that the Sandinista government carried out much more. In particular, the Reagan administration engaged in a campaign to alter public opinion on the Contras that has been termed "white propaganda".
Congress prohibited federal funding of the Contras through the Boland Amendment in , the Reagan administration continued to back the Contras by raising money from foreign allies and covertly selling arms to Iran then engaged in a war with Iraq , and channelling the proceeds to the Contras see the Iran—Contra affair.
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Oliver North took much of the blame. Unlike Spanish-speaking western Nicaragua, the Caribbean Coast is predominantly English-speaking and was largely ignored by the Somoza regime.
They argued that popular support was expressed in the insurrection and that further appeals to popular support would be a waste of scarce resources. Independent electoral observers from around the world—including groups from the UN as well as observers from Western Europe —found that the elections had been fair. According to a study,  since the election was for posts subordinate to the Sandinista Directorate, the elections were no more subject to approval by vote than the Central Committee of the Communist Party is in countries of the East Bloc.
Daniel Ortega began his six-year presidential term on January 10, After the United States Congress turned down continued funding of the Contras in April , the Reagan administration ordered a total embargo on United States trade with Nicaragua the following month, accusing the Sandinista government of threatening United States security in the region. The Contras also distributed thousands of UNO leaflets. After the war, a survey was taken of voters: Despite limited resources and poor organization, the UNO coalition under Violeta Chamorro directed a campaign centered around the failing economy and promises of peace.
Chamorro promised to end the unpopular military draft, bring about democratic reconciliation, and promote economic growth. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Reasons for the Sandinista loss in are disputed.
Defenders of the defeated government assert that Nicaraguans voted for the opposition due to the continuing U. Others have alleged that the United States threatened to continue to support the Contras and continue the civil war if the regime was not voted out of power.
Ortega also claimed to "rule from below" through groups he controls such as labor unions and student groups. Prominent Sandinistas also created nongovernmental organizations to promote their ideas and social goals. The Sandinistas won second place in the congressional elections, with 36 of 93 seats.
Municipal elections in November saw a strong Sandinista vote, especially in urban areas, and former Tourism Minister Herty Lewites was elected mayor of Managua. This result led to expectations of a close race in the presidential elections scheduled for November The results of these elections were that the FSLN won However, Lewites died several months before the elections.
The FSLN also won 38 seats in the congressional elections, becoming the party with the largest representation in parliament. In , several liberal congressmen raised accusations about the FSLN presumably attempting to buy votes in order to pass constitutional reforms that would allow Ortega to run for office for the 6th time since The voucher will consist of the delivery of a pregnant cow and a pregnant sow, five chickens and a rooster, seeds, fruit-bearing plants and plants for reforestation.
The families that benefit from the project will be required to pay back 20 percent of the amount that they receive in order to create a rural fund that will guarantee the continuity of the program. NGOs and representatives from each community will be in charge of managing the project. The ideology of Sandinismo gained momentum in , when a Sandinista initiated hostage situation resulted in the Somoza government adhering to FSLN demands and publicly printing and airing work on Sandino in well known newspapers and media outlets.
The tendencia proletaria TP, "proletarian tendency" , led by Jaime Wheelock , reflected an orthodox Marxist approach that sought to organize urban workers. Sotelo, and Daniel Ortega , was ideologically eclectic, favoring a more rapid insurrectional strategy in alliance with diverse sectors of the country, including business owners, churches, students, the middle class, unemployed youth and the inhabitants of shantytowns.