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Whether mixed with feed, added to litter or used in the treatment of slurry, the positive effect of biochar very quickly becomes apparent.
KATECHISMUS EINLEITUNG DURCH PAPST JOHANNES PAUL II.: FIDEI DEPOSITUM / HINWEIS KURZKATECHISMUS
The health — and consequently the well-being — of the livestock improve within just a short space of time. As regards nasty smells and nutrient losses, the use of biochar could even herald a new age of livestock farming, closing agricultural cycles of organic matter. Introduction Hormonal, chelating, antibiotic, teratogenic, carcinogenic and neural effects are the main symptoms of the cattle diseases, with which I am faced in my daily practice as a vet.
The productivity of cows and thus of production units are greatly dependent on the proper functioning of the gastrointestinal tract. This is the reason why diseases of the digestive tract and the corresponding treatment strategies play a key role in commercial livestock farming.
More often than not, farmers are no longer in a position to assess the quality of such feedstuff purchase is based on trust.
Affecting cattle, the disease — a toxic infection — is caused by clostridium botulinum toxins and is leading to significant direct and indirect losses in livestock farming. Glyphosate was also found in human urine up to 2. Herbicides found in Humane Urine. Moreover glyphosate has also been detected in digestate from biogas plants and in different animal feeds, often in alarming concentrations.
The fact that glyphosate has antibiotic effects is incidentally well-known to the producers of the herbicide, with Monsanto even filing an application for it to be patented as such US-Patent 7,,, EP When glyphosate gets into the digestive tract of animals and humans, it causes detectable changes in the gastrointestinal microbiota.
A good prophylactic, metaphylactic and therapeutic possibility of binding botulinum toxin and other toxins formed by clostridia, as well as the herbicide glyphosate increasingly detected in feedstuff, in the gastrointestinal tract of cattle seems to be the administration of biochar. The effect of activated carbon and biochar in feeding For some hundred years, research into activated carbon has been showing effective ways of adsorbing pathogenic clostridial toxins such as C.
Wang et al have shown that biochar has good sorption qualities with regard to the hydrophobic herbicide terbuthylazine and underline the important role it can play in protecting ground water. Graber confirmed that biochar can adsorb glyphosate. The use of carbon gained from pyrolysis for feeding purposes has been known for a long time and is recommended in Germany. In this sense, adding charcoal to the feed of young animals would seem a good preventive measure. Generally speaking, all activated carbons are originally biochars.
In doing so, their specific surface area increases from app. Activated carbon is 5 — 10 times more expensive than simple biochar, so it is possible to use times the amount of biochar to achieve the same result — whether with regard to digestion in cattle or in a sewage treatment plant.
Wunderbare Welt (TV Series 1992– ) - Episodes - IMDb
As activated carbon is for the most part produced without adequate controls in South-East Asia or South America, the eco-balance often leaves a lot to be desired. Biochar by contrast is produced from controlled, locally grown raw materials using controlled production methods. There is no real difficulty involved in producing activated carbon from biochar.
Volkmann describes an efficient reduction in excreted oocysts through adding charcoal to the food of pets with coccidiosis or coccidial infections. From an international perspective, we are currently seeing repeated reports on the advantages of mixing biochar into animal feed: Growth rates improved here when feed included 0.
The effects of biochar are based on the following mechanisms: From a toxicology perspective, classifiable distinctions need to be made to the time-dependent processes of adsorption, distribution, biotransformation and excretion of the toxic substances in the digestive tract of animals.
With regard to the specific mechanisms, more detailed research is urgently needed. Schirrmann describes the effect of activated carbon on bacteria and their toxins in the gastrointestinal tract: Adsorption of proteins, amines, amino-acids 2. Adsorption of digestive tract enzymes, as well as concentration of bacterial exoenzymes in the activated carbon 3. Adsorption, via chemotaxis, of mobile germs disposing of special attachment mechanisms. Of particular importance is the specific colonisation of the char with gram-negative germs with increased metabolic activity.
This results on the one hand in a decrease in endotoxins needing to be resorbed and on the other hand in the adsorption of the toxins in the char. Ariens and Lambrecht describe the advantages of activated carbon, stating that it is non-toxic, quickly available, has an unlimited shelf-life, is effective in the gastrointestinal tract, and is effective against already absorbed toxins and mineral oil products.
Adsorption applies to both lipophilic and hydrophilic substances. What we are thus seeing is the emergence of a genuine alternative to the established medical therapies — peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis or haemoperfusion. Via manure and slurry, the biochar mixed with the feed is returned to the soil, closing the organic cycle. The fact that biochar returned to the soil this way can be of interest for agriculture was already described by Perotti back in For him, the presence of biochar in the soil meant an improvement in its microbiological properties and a better supply of chlorophyll for the plants.
In his view, the benefits of biochar were as follows: Increased adsorption of ammonium salts 3. Decreased dispersion of nitrates 4. In a slightly acidic environment in particular, this process of alkalization through the adsorption of carbon only takes place slowly.
Schirrmann reports that the oxidisation reactions on activated carbon can be improved through increasing the nitrogen content. Nagel studied activated carbon populated by bacteria, without being able to find any efficient method of desorbing adherent bacteria.
Proving the existence of bacteria via excreted metabolites was not possible, and the only way of determining adherent cell counts was through the use of a gamma-ray marker Fe The use of biochar in cattle farming Biochar was administered at a dosage of g per cow and day in the farms I myself am responsible for, on the basis of studies by Feldmann , who conducted in vitro experiments with activated carbon.
But the adsorption capabilities of chars gained by pyrolysis show major variations. These effects were dependent on the char dosage. In particular, the levels of heavy metals, dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans play an important role as limiting factors, whereby biochar produced under the European Biochar Certificate meets all the animal feed threshold values.
The safety of biochar as a feed additive has been certified by Biocheck, a laboratory for veterinary diagnostics and environmental hygiene. Preliminary tests on the adsorption capacity of the biochar used were performed by the Central Laboratory of German Pharmacists, comparing it with commercially available activated medical charcoal using the phenazone adsorption test. The adsorption capacity of These results confirm the findings of Luder, W. Now that biochar can be produced economically i.
Practical use of biochar in feeding cattle 21 farm managers, each with an average herd of cows, gave their impressions of the effects they had observed during and after the administration of biochar.
Observations of initial effects 1 — 4 weeks after starting biochar administration: The adsorption qualities of biochar permit a wide range of toxic substances to be bound in the gastrointestinal tract. The oxidation and deamination of biogenic amines also play a particularly stabilising role in the intestines. Dysbiosis can be very efficiently and positively influenced by biochar, and eubiosis can be maintained much longer despite environmental fluctuations in the digestive tract.
A clear separation of the impact in the pro- or metaphylactic field and the therapeutic approach is desirable in theory, though in practice these effects are overlapping. In cases of acute intoxication, the parallel administration of saline laxatives is recommended Wiechowski One current problem affecting Schleswig-Holstein and Lower Saxony in particular is the high level of nitrate pollution in drinking water, the result of intensive farming.
The scientific methods for reducing nitrates in the soil have been known for more than a century. Reductions can be achieved by the intelligent use of commercial fertilisers based on biochar. Reports in this area have been published by Sommer Similarly, the changed economic conditions under which farms operate mean that what is now needed is a re-assessment of certain practices from an epidemiological perspective.
These include the disposal of placentas via the slurry system and the widespread use of bone meal as a fertiliser especially on account of increased maize production. One option available for minimising expected epidemiological and drinking water problems involves the inclusion of inert biochar in agricultural cycles of organic matter. Also necessary are tests on the biochar used, making sure that it complies with the structural, chemical, physical and biological requirements of the European Biochar Certificate EBC.
This is the only way to achieve a transferability of the results gained in the use of different chars to other studies. Achim Gerlach is a vet working for the Schleswig Holsteinschen Landkreis Dithmarschen and is probably the expert with the most experience in Europe on the administration of biochar in livestock feed. Should readers wish to directly contact the author, please just drop us a line.