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Services Several hotels, primarily on Grande Comore, service a small but growing tourist industry. The development of this sector is linked to political stability, however. There is an international airport near Moroni on Grande Comore.
Sea connections exist between the islands, and ferries provide a limited amount of interisland service. Landline telephone service is available on all of the islands. Mobile phone usage and Internet access were limited in the early 21st century, but both technologies are growing in popularity.
Executive power of the federal government is vested in the Council of the Union, which comprises a president and three vice presidents. Each council member serves a four-year term and represents one of the three islands, with the office of the federal president rotating between the islands every four years. The president, who serves as head of state, is directly elected in nationwide elections. The constitutional referendum passed in included measures to reduce the federal governmental structure, change the island leadership positions of president to governor, and extend the term of the federal presidency from four to five years.
The unicameral legislature consists of the Assembly of the Union; members are elected to five-year terms. Changes brought about by the constitution granted the three main islands partial autonomy , and each elects its own president later governor and legislative assembly. The government of each island is free to administer its own affairs so long as its actions do not infringe upon the rights of the other islands or otherwise threaten the state of the federal union. Political process The constitution created a multiparty system, but stringent criteria severely limited the number of parties with legal recognition.
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The constitution removed these impediments, thus allowing political parties to operate freely. The country has universal suffrage, and women participate in all aspects of the economy.
By the s women had become cabinet members and held other positions in various governments. Justice and security The legal system is a combination of French and Islamic law. The judiciary is headed by the Supreme Court. Other components include the Higher Council of the Magistracy, which is mandated to aid the president in providing for an independent judiciary, and a Constitutional Court. There is also a High Council, which is concerned with constitutional and electoral matters and rules in conflicts involving the islands and the federal union.
Comoros maintains a small army. The country also has an agreement with France that provides for a permanent French military presence in Comoros. The agreement was suspended after a military coup in April , but it recommenced in September Health and welfare Comoros has hospitals on each of the islands but suffers from a shortage of medical personnel, modern facilities, and supplies.
Comorians largely depend on traditional medicines and healers. Those who have more-serious health problems and can afford to seek medical assistance do so in either Madagascar or France. While infant mortality has decreased and life expectancy has increased, there are still several growing health concerns.
Less than half of the population has access to safe drinking water, and parasitic infestation is prevalent. Other serious illnesses are malaria, cholera, tuberculosis, and, to a lesser extent, leprosy and AIDS. Housing Housing in Comoros varies from two-room structures covered with palm leaves to multilevel buildings made of stone and coral. The part of the house at street level often serves as a shop or warehouse, but in earlier times that level housed slaves or servants.
Western-style houses, with indoor bathrooms and kitchens, also exist. This is partly due to the practice of polygamy , as well as the traditional need for Comorian men to travel away from their communities in search of work. The family home can be expanded, or a separate structure can be built for a woman to inhabit with her children. The public school system, however, has been chronically underfunded. There is a university in Moroni.
Nearly nine-tenths of the population can read and write Comorian, using Arabic script, though only about half of the population is literate in French, the language of government administration. Cultural life Over the centuries, diverse peoples have come together to form the complex cultural mix of Comoros. A culturally liberal form of Islam is the basis for religious observance during the year, and it provides the framework for daily life.
Traditional Comorian women wear colourful sari-like dresses called shiromani French chiromani and adorn their faces with a paste of ground sandalwood and coral called msinzano French msindanu.
Social organization is generational, with religious and ritual duties falling mostly to elders, who also enjoy political dominance. These events often feed the entire community , and tourists are generally welcome to attend. This custom, called grand mariage on Grande Comore, is so expensive that only the wealthiest can afford it. A man who hosts a grand mariage is thereafter considered to be a grand notable—a person of high social standing.
Ali Soilih, who was president of the country in the mids, attempted to ban this practice on the grounds that it imposed needless financial stress on an already impoverished society and kept the poor from participating in political life, but he was unsuccessful. The religious centre of Comorian culture is the mosque , but the centre of daily life is the public square, often merely a tiny plaza nestled behind apartment houses at the end of a maze of alleyways.
In the public squares on Grande Comore, men gather to one side, ranked by clan, age, and social status , so that the most-honoured have the best seats; on another side, sometimes separated by a wooden or fabric partition, sit women, similarly ordered by status. There they meet to share news and opinions, drink tea, and play chess and the game of mraha wa ntso. Students of Comorian society note that younger people of both sexes often prefer to gather in restaurants, clubs, and discotheques, and there is concern that the public square will dwindle in importance and perhaps even disappear within a generation or two.
Comorian cuisine is a mix of East African root-based stews and Indian Ocean in particular South Asian and Indonesian rice-based curry dishes. Locally grown spices such as vanilla, coriander, cardamom, and nutmeg figure heavily in regional cuisine, as do fresh fish and mutton. French styles have also influenced the Comorian table.
The arts Traditional arts include basketry, wood carving notably doors and furniture , elaborate embroidery on clothing and hats, and jewelry making in gold and silver filigree. Music is a widely shared form of cultural expression, and public squares and other gathering places showcase local groups and artists. Comorian popular music blends Arabic, African, Indian, and Western influences to produce a driving dance sound with lyrical, harmonized vocals.
Common instrumentation includes accordions, guitars, gongs, drums, and rattles. Many successful musicians have relocated to France, and several have found a large following among European audiences. Sports and recreation A wide variety of sports are popular in Comoros, including football soccer , basketball, athletics track and field , swimming, tennis, and cycling, most of which were introduced during the period of French colonialism.
Comoros participates in several regional and international competitions, such as the Aces Cup a Comoros-Mayotte basketball competition , the Indian Ocean Games, and the Francophone Games. Football is the most widely played sport.
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Every town has at least one team, and fans are fiercely loyal. However, with the creation of a national basketball federation in the late s, basketball has fast become as well-liked as football. Media and publishing Al Watwan, a government-sponsored weekly newspaper , is published in both French and Shingazidja, a local dialect that is spoken on Grande Comore.
There are several radio and television stations, which are all government-operated. History Comoros may have been inhabited by people of Malayo-Polynesian descent by the 5th or 6th century ce and possibly earlier. Others came from nearby Africa and Madagascar, and Arabs also made up a significant portion of the early population. The islands did not appear on a European world map until , when they were depicted by the Portuguese cartographer Diego Ribero.
The first Europeans known to visit the archipelago, somewhat later in the 16th century, appear to have been Portuguese.
The Englishman Sir James Lancaster visited Grande Comore about , but the dominant foreign influence in the islands remained Arabian until the 19th century. In France officially took possession of Mayotte , and in it placed the other three islands under its protection.
Administratively attached to Madagascar in , Comoros became an overseas territory of France in and was given representation in the French National Assembly. In , a year after Madagascar became independent, the islands were granted internal autonomy.
Majorities on three of the islands voted for independence in , but most of the inhabitants of Mayotte favoured continuing French rule. When the National Assembly of France held that each island should decide its own status, Comorian President Ahmed Abdallah who was deposed later that year declared the whole archipelago independent on July 6, Comoros was subsequently admitted to the United Nations , which recognized the integrity of the entire archipelago as one nation.
As relations deteriorated, France withdrew all development and technical aid from Comoros. Ali Soilih became president and attempted to convert the country into a secular , socialist republic. In May a coup led by a French citizen, Col.
Robert Denard , and a group of European mercenaries brought Abdallah, the exiled former president, back into power. Diplomatic relations with France were resumed, a new constitution was drawn up, and Abdallah was reelected president in late and again in , when he ran unopposed. He survived three coup attempts, but in November he was assassinated.
The coup was defused when French intervention removed Denard and the mercenaries. New elections were held in Under the newly elected president, Mohamed Abdoulkarim Taki, a new constitution was ratified and attempts were made to curtail government expenditures and increase revenues. The following month an attempt was made by the federal government to suppress the secessionist movement, but troops sent to the island of Anjouan were completely routed.
The independence of the two islands was not recognized by any political polity outside the islands, however, and attempts to mediate the situation by international organizations failed. The constitution called for new elections, but, before any were held, the interim president was ousted in April by a military coup led by the army chief of staff, Col. Azali Assoumani, who took control of the government. The new government was not recognized by the international community, but in July Assoumani negotiated an accord with the secessionists on the island of Anjouan.
The secessionists signed an agreement that established a presidential term that would rotate among the three islands. The rotating presidential term was approved by all three islands in December , as was a new draft constitution that provided each island with partial autonomy and their own local president and legislative assembly.
The first federal elections under the terms of the new constitution were held in , and Assoumani, from Grande Comore, was elected president. In the presidential term rotated to the island of Anjouan. Ahmed Abdallah Mohamed Sambi was declared the winner of the federal presidential election in May and assumed control of the federal government in a peaceful transfer of power.
Mohamed Bacar, to step down and allow for an interim president. Bacar ignored the order and in June held an election in which he was declared the winner. The results were not recognized by the federal government or the African Union AU: Comorian and AU troops invaded Anjouan on March 25, , and quickly secured the island; Bacar avoided capture and fled the country.